Glucagon - pancreatic hormone, one of its functions is to increase blood glucose levels.
Glucagon is a physiological antagonist of insulin.
Glucagon, whose functions are diametrically opposed insulin function significantly increases the glucose concentration in other organs due to its two effects: the breakdown of glycogen (the main storage carbohydrate) and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis (glucose production from other organic compounds) in the liver. Causing glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen to glucose) in the liver, glucagon hormone increases the concentration of glucose in the blood over several minutes.
Glucagon, the functions of which are not limited to hyperglycemic effect, able to shoot spasms, and to provide inotropic (force a change of heart beats) and chronotropic (changes in heart rate) effect on the heart as a result of increased formation of cAMP (mediator in the propagation of signals of certain hormones).
High doses of Glucagon cause strong relaxation of the intestine, which is not mediated by adenylate cyclase.
Glucagon is a hormone indicated for:
- relieving severe hypoglycaemia;
- reduced blood sugar (hypoglycemia) in patients with diabetes mellitus;
- shock therapy of mental illness;
- Diagnostic studies of various gastrointestinal tract as an aid.
mode of application
Glucagon is produced in the form of a lyophilisate for solution for injection. Introduction drug may subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous route.
Cupping involves the introduction of hypoglycaemia Glucagon 1 mg for adults and children weighing 20-25 kg matches. Children with less weight recommended dose of 500 micrograms or calculated by multiplying the child's weight is 20-30 mg of the drug. If necessary, glucagon repeated after 12 minutes. By using hormone glucagon to diagnose dose may vary from 500 mg to 2 mg.
After administration of the drug is recommended to take extra carbohydrates to restore glycogen and prevent secondary hypoglycemia. If the use of glucagon has not produced the expected results, it is recommended intravenously administered glucose.
Glucagon is a hormone can cause unwanted effects, such as a transient increase in blood pressure, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions such as itching, skin rash and angioedema shock.
Contraindications specified in the instructions to the glucagon
Glucagon, the functions of which can be dangerous in certain diseases is contraindicated in the following cases:
- glucagonoma (a tumor that produces glucagon in excess);
- insuloma (a tumor producing excessive insulin);
- pheochromocytoma (a tumor in excess catecholamine secreting);
- Hypersensitivity to glucagon.
Precautions drug prescribed to pregnant and lactating women.
Glucagon should store at a temperature corresponding to 15-30