Piracetam - synthetic nootropic drug widely used in psychiatric and neurological practice.
The active substance piracetam, acting directly on the brain, improves cognitive processes such as memory, learning ability, attention and mental capacity. In addition, the drug has a restorative and protective effect in the human brain and hypoxia-induced intoxication.
Piracetam for manual has different effects on the central nervous system:
- It affects blood viscosity, without causing vasodilating action;
- Improves metabolic processes of nerve cells;
- It improves the microcirculation;
- It changes the speed of propagation of impulses in the brain.
In the application of piracetam improves communication between the hemispheres of the brain, the cerebral blood flow and conductance in neocortical synaptic structures.
Piracetam release in the dosage form:
- Capsules, 400 mg each. 60 pieces per pack;
- Film-coated tablets of 200 mg each. 60 pieces per pack;
- 20% solution for injections in ampoules of 5 ml.
Analogs of piracetam mechanism of action drugs are Lutset, Memotropil, nootropics Piracetam, ICCO, Eskotropil.
Piracetam under the instruction prescribed for adults:
- For the treatment of dizziness (vertigo) and related disorders of balance, except in cases of psychogenic dizziness and vasomotor origin;
- For the symptomatic treatment of psycho-organic syndrome with accompanying decrease in activity, memory and concentration, as well as a change in behavior, mood and gait;
- For the prevention and relief of sickle cell crisis vazookklyuzionnogo;
- For treatment of cortical myoclonus in monotherapy or in combined therapy.
According to the testimony Piracetam prescribed for children in the cases:
- Dyslexia, usually in combination with other methods, including speech therapy;
- Sickle cell crisis vazookklyuzionnogo for the prevention and relief.
According to the instructions Piracetam contraindicated to apply at:
- Hypersensitivity to one of the components of the formulation;
- Hemorrhagic stroke;
- Pregnancy and lactation;
- Psychomotor agitation;
- Chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance less than 20 ml / min);
- Huntington's chorea.
In addition, indications of Piracetam should be used with caution in the following cases:
- Chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 20-80 ml / min);
- Hemostatic disorders;
- Heavy bleeding;
- Major surgery.
According to the testimony Piracetam capsules are encouraged to take on an empty stomach or during meals. The daily dose is usually divided into 2-4 reception, with the last dose should be taken no later than 17 hours, not to cause sleep disorders. Piracetam as a solution for injection can be used intravenously and intramuscularly in cases of unconsciousness or difficulty swallowing.
In the application of piracetam in the treatment of cortical myoclonus starting dose of 7, 2 grams per day every three days increased by 4, 8 g Throughout the period of the disease treatment is carried out, taking 24 grams of the drug per day. After six months of therapy to try to stop the drug or reduce the daily dose gradually reducing its 1, 2 grams per day. If the use of piracetam provides little therapeutic effect, treatment should be discontinued. It is not recommended to cancel the drug abruptly, in order to avoid the resumption of attacks.
Symptomatic treatment psychoorganic syndrome during the first weeks of therapy taking 4, 8 g daily, after which the dose was lowered to supports - 1, 2-2, 4 g
In the treatment of vertigo and related disorders of balance is usually prescribed at 2, 4-4, 8 g piracetam per day.
For the prevention of children and adults sickle cell crisis vazookklyuzionnogo daily dose of 160 mg per 1 kg of body weight divided into 4 equal parts. During therapy, it should be noted that the irregular intake of piracetam may exacerbate the disease. For treatment of disease the drug should be administered intravenously at 300 mg per 1 kg a day.
Children older than 8 years of treatment for dyslexia pyracetam reviews effectively in combination with other methods. In this case should be 4 capsules (400 mg) twice daily.
In chronic renal failure need to be adjusted to take a dose, depending on the severity of the disease:
- When mild (creatinine clearance 50-79 ml / min) should be 2/3 of the recommended daily dose in 2-3 hours;
- At an average (CC 30-49 ml / min) - 1/3 the daily dose divided into 2 admission;
- If severe (CC 20-30 ml / min) - 1/6 single daily dose.
Side effects of piracetam
Most often, the application of piracetam on responses observed central nervous system disorders, such as:
- Motor disinhibition;
- Exacerbation of epilepsy;
- Mental stimulation;
In addition, the therapeutic doses of piracetam reviews can cause:
- Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain;
- Anaphylactic reactions, hypersensitivity, angioneurotic edema;
- Reduction in blood pressure, fever;
- Weight gain;
- Itching, dermatitis, urticaria;
- Thrombophlebitis, pain at the injection site.
When applying piracetam in doses that exceed therapeutic, increases the risk of diarrhea with blood and abdominal pain. Since there is no specific antidote, an overdose of piracetam should undertake:
- Symptomatic therapy;
- The induction of vomiting;
- Gastric lavage;
- Hemodialysis (efficiency 50-60%).
With simultaneous use of piracetam with iodine-containing thyroid hormone can cause irritability, confusion, and sleep disturbance.
According to the testimony Piracetam can be purchased at the doctor's prescription. Shelf life of ampoules and capsules with the solution - 3 years, tablets - 24 months.