Mannitol - a drug with diuretic action.
Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic refers to that by increasing the osmotic pressure of the plasma, retain water, increased urine volume.
When the pressure in the plasma is transferring liquid from the tissue, for example, from the brain or the eyeball in the blood vessels, which is important at an elevated pressure in these organs.
The diuretic effect is dose-dependent Mannitol - the higher the dosage, the greater the amount of urine can be obtained.
The instructions mannitol stated that when azotemia patients with ascites, cirrhosis, impaired kidney filtration process, the drug is ineffective.
During the therapy consider that diuretic increases blood volume.
Producing Mannitol solution for intravenous administration.
Mannitol is used in acute renal failure, including in a stage of oliguria, status epilepticus, an acute attack of glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, increased intracranial pressure, acute renal / hepatic insufficiency, during operations using extracorporeal circulation, at a poisoning with lithium, salicylates, bromides, barbiturates, for diuresis in other poisoning, to prevent the development hemoglobinemia, hemolysis during resection of the prostate or cardio-pulmonary bypass system.
With the help of mannitol in acute oliguria define index glomerular filtration rate.
Instructions mannitol: how to use
The drug is administered intravenously - 10-20% solution in a dosage of 0, 5-1, 5 g / kg. Acceptable daily dosage - 140-180g.
Mannitol Powder 5% Dextrose is dissolved directly before administration.
Before use, the solution is recommended to warm up to 37 degrees.
During the surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass Mannitol is administered prior to the start of perfusion - 20-40g.
During treatment, control blood pressure, urine output status, verify the quantity of electrolytes in the blood.
Mannitol can cause dehydration, which is accompanied by dyspepsia, dry mouth, myasthenia, thirst, cramps, low blood pressure, hallucinations. Besides may disrupt water and electrolyte balance, start tachycardia, develop thrombophlebitis, may have chest pain, skin rash.
When the patient's dizziness, headache, vomiting, blurred vision, you must exclude subarachnoid or subdural bleeding.
Mannitol can not be applied when chronic renal failure, left ventricular failure, hypersensitivity, hemorrhagic stroke, severe dehydration, hypochloremia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage (except in cases where bleeding is opened during craniotomy).
Nursing and pregnant women are prescribed Mannitol with caution.
The drug may increase the toxicity of cardiac glycosides and therefore cause hypokalemia.
Nephrotoxic, ototoxic effects develop, while the use of mannitol with neomycin.
The diuretic effect of the drug is enhanced when used in conjunction with other diuretics.