Isoniazid - synthetic anti-TB drugs, which has a high bacteriostatic activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The active ingredient of the drug - isoniazid isonicotinic acid derivative which is used as an anti-TB drugs.
Bactericidal effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At the same time on other common pathogens of various infectious diseases has no pronounced effect. Isoniazid is used in pediatrics for children with a positive tuberculin reaction of 10 mm.
It is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the maximum blood concentration reached in 1-3 hours after administration. Usually the drug is well tolerated, and children and adults, and in compliance with therapeutic doses of isoniazid poisoning are extremely rare.
Isoniazid is available as tablets and injectable solution.
Isoniazid Tablets. Release tablets of 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg, by 10, 20, 50, 100 pieces in the package (depending on the manufacturer of the drug). Isoniazid is also included in the other combination pill of tuberculosis;
10% solution of isoniazid 5 ml ampoules. 5 vials per pack, 1 or 2 of the package in a carton.
It should be noted that the injection is not particularly advantages over drug taking into tablets to achieve a therapeutic effect.
Indications for isoniazid
According to the instructions Isoniazid indicated for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis, including the active form of tuberculosis and meningitis, regardless of age, often - as part of combination therapy. Application of the most effective in acute occurring processes. When mixed infection is used concurrently with fluoroquinolones, broad-spectrum antibiotics and sulfonamides.
To prevent tablet Isoniazid applied:
- Persons who are in close contact with patients with active tuberculosis;
- Elderly with a positive tuberculin skin reaction (5 mm), and confirm this X-ray data, which point to non-progressive for tuberculosis;
- Children under four years, with the positive response of more than 10 mm.
Isoniazid for instructions contraindicated in:
- Hypersensitivity to the drug. This applies to ethionamide, pyrazinamide, and nicotinic acid;
- Epilepsy and a tendency to seizures;
- Polio, or poliomyelitis earlier adjourned;
- Severe forms of renal and hepatic failure;
- Mental diseases and diseases of the nervous system;
- Advanced atherosclerosis;
- Hypertensive disease stage II-III;
- Bronchial asthma;
- Cirrhosis of the liver;
- Pulmonary heart disease stage III;
- Phlebitis (intravenous administration of the drug is contraindicated);
- Eczema in the acute phase;
- Diseases of the optic and peripheral nerves;
- Toxic hepatitis in history;
- Coronary heart disease;
Isoniazid is used in different ways: inside a pill vnutrikavernozno intravenous, intramuscular and inhaled as a solution for injection.
Regimen set individually, depending on the age and nature of the disease and tolerability. Treatment is usually long.
Isoniazid tablets administered 300 mg once daily for adults and adolescents. Take the drug should be after a meal. When administered or administered intravenously daily dose should not exceed 300 mg.
For the prevention of tuberculosis Isoniazid only accept tablets the rate of 5-10 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day in 1-2 reception. The course - at least 2 months.
Babies Isoniazid also administered once daily at the rate of 10-20 mg per 1 kg of weight, while the length is determined individually in each case. Intramuscularly or intravenously daily dose is 10-15 mg per 1 kg weight.
Intramuscularly or intravenously Isoniazid is usually administered when active forms of tuberculosis in cases where there are difficulties when administered in case of intolerance or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Adults and adolescents administered 10% solution of Isoniazid 5-12 mg calculated for 1 kg body weight per day. The average duration - from 2 to 5 months.
In the opinion of Isoniazid by intravenous administration is better tolerated in compliance with bed rest for 1-1 and 5 hours after injection.
Vnutrikavernozno administered drug in the cavernous and fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis and in preparation for surgery.
Inhalation apply a 10% solution daily isoniazid 5-10 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. Course duration - from one to six months.
In the opinion of Isoniazid preventive doses are well tolerated without causing side effects, liver damage, or nervous system.
When used in therapeutic doses may experience pain in the heart, headache, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, and allergic skin reactions. Sometimes there worsening of sleep, euphoria, drug-induced hepatitis, or psychosis.
In the opinion of the side effects of isoniazid are at temporary break in taking the drug and dose reduction.
To reduce the side effects appoint pyridoxine, glutamic acid, and solutions of thiamin or thiamine chloride bromide.
When isoniazid should not drink alcohol.
In pregnancy, the use of the drug is possible only under strict indications at doses not exceeding 10 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Use of the drug is allowed during lactation, but should take into account that the Isoniazid crosses the placental barrier and is excreted in breast milk.
If you exceed the therapeutic dose may be an overdose, which can lead to poisoning of isoniazid. The most frequent symptoms are manifested in cases of poisoning include nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, confusion, dizziness, dysarthria, drowsiness, confusion. Perhaps the development of coma, convulsions, respiratory function, pronounced motor excitation. Isoniazid poisoning is very dangerous and require immediate attention. In carrying out the activities in time for the removal of the drug may prevent irreversible changes.
Isoniazid related to drugs group B.
Shelf life isoniazid tablets - 6 years, in ampoules as a solution for injections - 2 years.