Gemzar - antineoplastic, cytostatic agent.
Release form of the drug and
Available lyophilized powder for solution for infusion.
It is a white or almost white powder. The finished solution is a transparent liquid, no color or a pale straw color.
The active ingredient of the drug Gemzar - gemnitsitabina hydrochloride. Auxiliary components - sodium chloride, mannitol.
An antimetabolite, an analog of the pyrimidine antineoplastic agent. The drug acts on cells in phases G1 / S and S, shows tsiklospetsifichnost.
Under the influence of nucleoside gemnitsitabin metabolized within the cell to form the active triphosphate and diphosphate nucleoside. Nucleoside diphosphate inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, which is the only catalyst for reactions that produce deoxynucleoside triphosphates, without which no DNA synthesis.
Nucleoside triphosphate actively compete with dezoksitsitidintrifosfatom for embedding molecules of RNA and DNA. After intracellular metabolites gemcitabine lined up in a DNA strand to its complementary nucleotide strands added, resulting in complete inhibition of further DNA synthesis and cell destruction called apoptosis.
Gemzar is prescribed according to the instructions in cancer:
- while small cell lung cancer.
Reviews of Gemzar show that when monotherapy or in combined therapy with other anti-cancer agents gemcitabine able to be proactive and small cell lung cancer, is effective in biliary tract cancer, and testicular cancer.
Dosage and method of administration
Gemzar treatment is carried out intravenously over an hour.
In small cell lung cancer as a monotherapy drug dosage is 1 g per m2 in the 1st, 8th and 15th days of the cycle of 28 days. For combination therapy the dosage is 1 g per 25 m2 in the 1st and 8th days cycle consisting of 21 days or 1 mg per m2 of the 1st, 8th and 15th days of the cycle (28 days ). After introduction gemnitsitabina cisplatin administered in a dosage of 0, 07 g per m2 on the first day of the cycle.
Bladder cancer as a monotherapy in treating Gemzar dosage is 1 g per 25 m2 1st, 8th and 15th days of the cycle (28 days). In combination with cisplatin is administered in a dosage formulation 1 g per m2 in the 1st, 8th and 15th days of each cycle (28 days). Cisplatin was administered at a dosage of 0, 07 g per m2 Gemzar immediately after treatment on the first day of the cycle.
In advanced breast cancer treatments Gemzar is performed after first-line therapy consisting of anthracyclines. Dosage is 1 to 1, 2 g per m2 in the 1st, 8th and 15th days of each cycle (28 days). In a combination therapy the dosage is 1 g per 25 m2 1st, 8th and 15th days of each cycle (28 days) in combination with paclitaxel, which is used in a dosage Gemzar after 0, 175 g per m2 in the first day of each cycle (day 21).
When intravesical dose of Gemzar is 2, the instructions for solution for installations of the powder was dissolved in 50 ml or 100 ml of saline solution at a concentration of 0, 02-0, 04 g / ml. The prepared solution can be used within one hour. Used once a week. Course duration - six weeks.
Pancreatic cancer monotherapy dose of Gemzar on instructions 1 g per m2 once a week. Duration of the course - seven weeks. Thereafter, the drug is administered in the 1st, 8th and 15th days of each cycle (28 days).
In epithelial ovarian cancer as a monotherapy dosage equals 0, 8 to 1, 25 g per m2 in the 1st, 8th and 15th days of the cycle (28 days). In combination with carboplatin dosage preparation is 1 g per m2 in the 1st and 8th days of the cycle (21 days). Carboplatin is administered at a dose AUC 0, 004 g / ml / min immediately after treatment on the first day Gemzar cycle (21 days).
When cervical cancer treatments Gemzar is performed only as part of combination therapy. In combination with cisplatin dosage instructions for Gemzar is 1, 25 g per m2 in the 1st and 8th days of the cycle (21 days). Cisplatin was administered immediately after the infusion at a dosage of 0, 07 mg per m2 at 1-day cycle. In locally advanced cancers with simultaneous chemo-radiotherapy dose gemnitsitabina is 0, 125 g per m2 once a week for one hour before the start of radiation therapy, followed by administration of cisplatin at a dosage of 0, 04 g per m2.
Before each use of Gemzar on instructions necessary to control the number of leukocytes, platelets and granulocytes in the blood. Where there is evidence of suppression of bone marrow function is necessary to adjust the dose or suspend treatment.
Contraindications to the use of Gemzar
Reviews of Gemzar revealed these contraindications:
- Pregnancy and lactation (lactation);
- Hypersensitivity to the drug.
Precautions should be prescribed the drug to people in violation of the liver or kidneys.
- Urinary system. There were reviews of Gemzar the occurrence of mild hematuria and proteinuria, renal failure;
- Hematopoietic system. Reviews of Gemzar indicate the occurrence of leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis occasionally;
- respiratory system. Reviews of Gemzar showed that there is shortness of breath, cough, rarely - interstitial pneumonia, bronchospasm;
- Reviews of Gemzar show such side effects of the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, stomatitis, increased levels of bilirubin;
- Dermatological reactions manifest as skin rash, alopecia, pruritus.
- the cardiovascular system. There were occasional reviews of Gemzar to reduce blood pressure, arrhythmias, heart failure and myocardial infarction;
- Suffering and the central nervous system - possible headaches, insomnia or hypersomnia.
There are reviews of Gemzar the occurrence of influenza-like syndrome and peripheral edema, chills, back pain, fever, myalgia. Sometimes there is swelling of the face. Extremely rare anaphylactic reaction may occur in the treatment of Gemzar.