Fennel - a perennial or biennial plant, it belongs to the family umbrella. At the height of the plant can grow up to 2 meters, the stem of his direct and round, much branched above. Root fleshy bulb of fennel is represented by yellow-white color. The leaves are very similar to fennel dill. On top of all parts of the plant are covered with a bluish bloom. Blossoms as an ordinary fennel dill. Fennel fruits ripen in autumn.
Other names of the plant are as follows:
- Pharmacy dill;
- Fennel Voloska.
Homeland plants considered Mediterranean. Fennel was known to man as far back as ancient Greece and Egypt, even then it was used as a spice and medicine. The first mention of the use of fennel and its properties dating back to the XVIII century.
In the wild fennel grows on dry stony slopes, ditches and roadsides. Wild Fennel we can meet in the Crimea, Central Asia and Transcaucasia.
For use as a medicine fennel and spices, it is grown in the Krasnodar region, the North Caucasus, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. The most common cultivar in our time - a fennel Balonsky.
The composition and useful properties of fennel
The main characteristic of fennel is a high content of essential oils. The various parts of the plant contain different amounts of essential oils:
- Fruits (seeds) - 6, 5%;
- Leaves - 0, 5%.
Essential oil of fennel fruit has a strong aroma and sweet spicy taste. Useful properties of fennel are caused by a unique chemical composition and content in it of many substances:
- Methyl chavicol;
- Alfa phellandrene;
Fruits are rich in fatty oils of fennel. Thus, scientific reviews of fennel contain the information that the seeds contain from 12 to 18 percent of the fatty oils. These oils include in their composition, many valuable acids:
The use of useful properties of fennel fruit in due to such a rich composition. But the useful properties are not only the fruit of the fennel, the use of leaves and stem of the plant brings significant benefits to the body. Thus, the composition of the green part of the fennel is also rich in various elements:
- ascorbic acid;
- B vitamins
A distinguishing feature of fennel, reviews cooks, it is its low calorie content. Thus, the caloric content of fennel is 31 kcal per 100 g But 100 grams of fruit fennel - a very impressive weight. Hardly anyone then immediately eats so much. In addition, it would already be excessive use of medicinal plants. There are a lot of reviews about the fennel, the use of which in large numbers, on the contrary, detrimental to health. In particular, it can cause stomach upset and even poisoning.
Preparations from the fruit of fennel have the following effects on the body:
- Increased secretion of digestive glands;
- Sedative (calming);
- Diuretic action;
The use of fennel
The use of fennel on reviews of patients provides an excellent effect in the treatment of numerous diseases. In order to use medicinal fennel fruit and leaves. The fruits of fennel found application in the manufacture of other drugs, drugs to neutralize the bitterness and unpleasant odors. This is due to a distinctive feature of fennel in the form of a strong smell and rich taste.
Numerous reviews of fennel celebrated its beneficial effects on the central nervous system. Antispasmodic and sedative properties of fennel are used in the manufacture of medicines for asthma.
Oil of fennel fruit has found use as an expectorant for the treatment of colds. Thus, the use of fennel is useful when the following diseases:
The oil from the fruit of the fennel is also used for flatulence, indigestion and colitis. Property fennel improve the functioning of the intestine is actively used in many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The use of fennel, in moderation, is also suitable for the prevention of constipation. This property is the fruit of fennel is used even for babies and infants, to relieve stomach cramps and colic. The famous "dill water" is produced from the fruits of fennel.
In addition, a decoction of the fruit of fennel found application in obstetrics and gynecology. The unique properties of fennel, reviews pregnant women to help improve digestion and remove attacks toxicity (nausea). The same effect is achieved by the application of fennel with its use in food just gave birth at women. The use of fennel helps to establish maternity digestion. In addition, the unusual property of fennel, in the opinion of young mothers, is its ability to stimulate lactation. Taking tea from the fruit of the fennel, women manage to quickly establish lactation. In addition, through breast milk to the baby permeate providing therapeutic properties of fennel. Thus, it is possible to avoid excessive gas generation in a small body. The use of fennel has a beneficial effect on the normalization of the menstrual cycle.
In cooking, the use of fennel found as a condiment. In the food consumed virtually all of the plant may be: its bulb stem (stem) leaves and seeds. From fresh herbs and fennel bulbs, reviews cooks, prepare salads and soups. The fruits of fennel complement meat and fish dishes. Additionally, fennel fruit used in canning of certain vegetables for the winter.
Essential oil of fennel fruit has also found applications in cosmetics and perfumes.
Contraindications to the use of fennel
Along with the fact that the use of fennel and its properties lactating women is widespread, and the need to exercise caution. There are reviews of fennel from women who have begun to notice in himself and the child's allergy symptoms after excessive consumption of this plant. The same applies to pregnant women. You should not self-prescribe and make drugs based on fennel. And even more, do not exceed the recommended dose administration. During pregnancy and lactation the use of fennel is only possible in consultation with the doctor.
In addition, an absolute contraindication to the use of fennel is the body's hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy fennel fruit. In this case, a person may feel nausea and dizziness, even the smell of the plants.
Excessive use of fennel, in the opinion of doctors in epilepsy is extremely dangerous and can lead to death.