Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic glucocorticoid (a hormone of the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogues) indicated for the regulation of protein, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism.
Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory, desensitizing (reduces sensitivity to allergens), anti-allergic, protivosokovmi, immunosuppressive (suppress the immune system or reduce) and antitoxic properties.
Application of Dexamethasone can improve the sensitivity of foreign proteins of the cell membrane (beta-adrenergic receptors) to endogenous catecholamines (mediators of intercellular interaction).
Dexamethasone regulates protein metabolism, reducing the synthesis and increasing in muscle protein catabolism, decreasing the amount of globulin in the plasma, improving liver and kidney albumin synthesis.
Affecting carbohydrate metabolism, Dexamethasone promotes absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, the increase in blood glucose proceeds from liver, development of hyperglycemia, which in turn activates the production of insulin.
Participation of dexamethasone in water-electrolyte metabolism appears to decrease bone mineralization, sodium and water retention in the body, reducing the calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
Anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties dexamethasone its activity 35 times higher than the effects of cortisone.
Apply pills Dexamethasone instruction recommends that:
- acute and subacute thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland);
- hypothyroidism (a condition when a persistent lack of thyroid hormones);
- progressive eye disease (increase in eye tissue) associated with thyrotoxicosis (poisoning thyroid hormone);
- Addison's disease-Biermer (loss of ability to produce adrenal hormones in sufficient quantity);
- connective tissue diseases;
- rheumatoid arthritis in the acute phase;
- autoimmune hemolytic anemia;
- serum sickness (immune reaction to foreign proteins serum);
- agranulocytosis (reduction of neutrophils in the blood);
- acute erythroderma (redness of the skin);
- pemphigus (skin disease, which manifests itself in the form of blisters on the hands, genitals, mouth, etc.) ;;
- acute eczema;
- malignancies (symptomatic therapy);
- swelling of the brain;
- congenital adrenogenital syndrome (hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex, and increased content of androgens in the body).
Dexamethasone in ampoules used for:
- shock of various origins;
- status asthmaticus;
- swelling of the brain;
- Severe allergic reactions;
- acute hemolytic anemia;
- acute lymphoblastic leukemia (malignant disease that affects the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and other organs);
- serious infectious diseases;
- Acute croup (an inflammation of the larynx and upper airways);
- acute adrenal insufficiency;
- diseases of the joints.
Dexamethasone drops are used in ophthalmic practice in:
- purulent and allergic conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye);
- keratitis (inflammation of the cornea);
- keratoconjunctivitis (simultaneous inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea) without damage to the epithelium;
- iritis (inflammation of the iris);
- iridocyclitis (inflammation of the iris and ciliary body);
- blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margins);
- scleritis (inflammation of the deep layers of the sclera of the eye);
- episcleritis (inflammation of the connective tissue between the conjunctiva and sclera);
- inflammation after eye injuries or operations;
- sympathetic ophthalmia (inflammation of the eye).
Instructions for use Dexamethasone
Oral dexamethasone in the form of tablets involves administering 10-15 mg per day in the initial stage of treatment followed by a decrease in the daily dose of 2-4 5 mg in supportive therapy.
The daily dose Dexamethasone manual recommends divided into 2-3 reception (during or after a meal). Supporting small doses should be taken once a day, preferably in the morning.
Dexamethasone in vials intended for intravenous (bolus or infusion), intramuscular, and intraarticular injection perartikulyarnogo. The recommended daily dose of dexamethasone for such methods of administration - 4-20 mg.
Dexamethasone is typically used in ampoules 3-4 times a day for 3-4 days with subsequent transition to the tablet.
Dexamethasone drops used in ophthalmology: acute states of 1-2 drops of the drug is instilled into the conjunctival sac every 1-2 hours, while improving the state - every 4-6 hours.
Chronic processes involve the use of dexamethasone drops 2 times a day. The duration of treatment depends on the clinical course of the disease, however Dexamethasone drops may be applied several days to four weeks.
According to the instructions, Dexamethasone can cause undesirable reactions such as:
- reduced glucose tolerance, suppression of adrenal function, steroid diabetes, Cushing's syndrome (hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex);
- hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, increased excretion of calcium, weight gain, increased sweating;
- increased intracranial pressure, anxiety, depression, paranoia, dizziness, headache, convulsions;
- vomiting, nausea. steroid ulcer, pancreatitis, erosive esophagitis (inflammation of the surface of the esophagus), hiccups, flatulence;
- bradycardia, arrhythmia, high blood pressure;
- proptosis (eyeball displacement forward or to the side), trophic changes of the cornea, the tendency to develop infections of the eyes, increased intraocular pressure, posterior subcapsular cataract (clouding of the lens);
- ossification retardation in children, muscle tendon rupture, osteoporosis, reduced muscle mass, steroid myopathy;
- and allergic dermatologic reactions.
Use of dexamethasone is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug.
Precautions Dexamethasone prescribed for:
- peptic ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis, recently established intestinal anastomosis, diverticulitis;
- parasitic and infectious diseases of different nature;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- endocrine diseases;
- severe hepatic or renal insufficiency, nefrourolitiaze, hypoalbuminemia;
- glaucoma, poliomyelitis, acute psychosis, systemic osteoporosis.
Application of Dexamethasone pregnant and nursing women as well as children should occur only on prescription, after taking into account all possible risks.