Codeine is an antitussive drug having a narcotic analgesic and a weak effect.
The pharmacological action of Codeine
Codeine in character actions similar to morphine, but has a less pronounced analgesic properties, and on the other hand, to a lesser extent inhibits the activity of the digestive tract and respiratory depression.
The use of codeine cough due to its ability to suppress the cough center and reduces its excitability. This tool affects the emotional perception of pain, it can be used as a component of analgesic drugs.
The use of codeine in high doses can cause a feeling of euphoria, and with regular use of the substance is observed addictive.
The hypnotic effect of codeine is considerably less than that of morphine and opium. After oral analgesic effect was observed after 30-60 minutes after subcutaneous or intramuscular administration - after 10-45 minutes. The maximum effect of codeine achieved 1-2 hours after oral administration and at 0, 5-1 hours after intramuscular administration.
Codeine cough is effective for 4-6 hours, and as an analgesic - 4 hours.
Preparations containing codeine: Kodelmikst, kodterpin, Kodeterp, Terpinkod, M sedan, Codelac, Kodesan, Solpadein, sedalgin, Kaffetin, Kofeks, Nurofen Plus, Pentalgin.
Similar codeine nature of the action and indications for use has codeine phosphate. This product contains about 80% codeine and considered less toxic. Codeine phosphate is permitted for use in young children, adults this drug is given at the same doses as codeine.
Assign codeine cough unproductive nature in emphysema, bronchitis, pneumonia.
In addition, codeine and codeine phosphate are used to remove weakly to moderately severe pain syndrome, in combination with non-narcotic analgesics, - headache, neuralgia. Diarrhea is also an indication for the use of codeine.
Instructions for use Codeine
Adults codeine cough are advised to take 4 times a day for 10-20 mg, with the same number of intakes of 30 mg of the drug is prescribed for diarrhea. To eliminate the pain codeine should be taken every 3-6 hours for 15-60 mg. The maximum daily dose of codeine for adults should not exceed 120 mg.
The daily dose of codeine children with diarrhea and pain is 0, 5 mg / kg, the dosing frequency - 4 times as necessary to eliminate pain permitted to increase the number of receptions to 6 times.
Codeine cough apply to children under two years is not recommended, however, for children older than 6 months can be assigned codeine phosphate in a dose of 2-10 mg at one time.
Children 2-5 years old cough is recommended per day to 1 mg / kg dose is divided into 4 admission. It is also possible, and the other regimen on which every 4-6 hours (no more than 4 times a day) for children prescribed dose of codeine following: older than 2 years with body weight over 12 kg - 3 mg; over 3 years old, weighing more than 14 kg - 3, 5 mg; over 4 years - 4 mg; over 5 years - 4, 5 mg; 6-12 years - 5-10 mg.
Formulations containing codeine may cause undesirable effects such as:
- constipation, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dry mouth, cramps in the digestive tract, paralytic ileus;
- drowsiness, fatigue, headache, confusion, dizziness, nervousness, depression, convulsions, involuntary muscle twitching, ringing in the ears;
- Arrhythmia, reduction or increase in blood pressure;
- depression of the respiratory center, atelectasis (a condition in which all or a portion of a light subsides by airless);
- ureter spasms, decrease the amount of urine;
- allergic skin reactions, bronchospasm, laryngospasm, facial edema, swelling of the throat;
- sweating, discomfort, increased body mass.
Codeine is drug dependence syndrome "cancel".
Codeine and codeine phosphate are not appointed at:
- toxic dyspepsia (breach of the stomach);
- diarrhea on the background of pseudomembranous colitis (a disease of the large intestine, triggered by long-term use of antibiotics), which was due to lincosamides, cephalosporins, penicillins;
- acute depression of the respiratory center;
Precautions should be taken codeine for cough and for the purpose of anesthesia at:
- asthma attack;
- acute abdominal pain of unknown origin;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
- drug addiction;
- emotional lability;
- brain trauma;
- hepatic or renal failure;
- intracranial hypertension;
- prostatic hyperplasia;
- severe inflammatory bowel disease.
The decision on the appropriateness of codeine pregnant, lactating women, elderly patients and children should take the attending physician.
Codeine is fit for use for 5 years if stored in a dark, dry place.