Carbamazepine - synthetic anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and some mental disorders.
The active ingredient Carbamazepine has a psychotropic, antiepileptic, neurotropic and the antidiuretic action.
Carbamazepine reduces anxiety and irritability, the frequency of attacks, depression and aggression in patients with epilepsy, as well as in the chamber prevents the appearance of paroxysmal pain. When alcohol withdrawal syndrome, reduces nervous irritability and tremor and increases seizure threshold.
Carbamazepine is used for treatment of mood disorders as mood stabilizer and antipsychotic. In the opinion of carbamazepine with diabetes insipidus significantly reduces thirst and diuresis.
It absorbed rather slowly, but almost full, reaching a maximum after 12 hours action.
In pediatrics to achieve a therapeutic effect Carbamazepine is used in higher doses than adults, due to the peculiarities of physiology.
Carbamazepine is produced in the form of white spigot tablets, each containing 200 mg of active compound carbamazepine.
Excipients - talc, magnesium stearate, potato starch, colloidal silicon dioxide (Aerosil), polysorbate (Tween 80) and povidone (polyvinylpyrrolidone).
In cartons of 1-5 blisters containing 10 tablets each.
Indications for use Carbamazepine
According to the instructions of carbamazepine applied at:
- Ethers and seizures;
- Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
- Mixed forms of seizures;
- Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (in the complex therapy);
- Acute manic states;
- Pain syndrome in diabetic neuropathy;
- Trigeminal neuralgia;
- Idiopathic neuralgia glossopharyngeal nerve;
- Polyuria and polydipsia of neurohormonal nature with diabetes insipidus.
Also, carbamazepine according to the instructions is used as maintenance therapy of bipolar affective disorders to reduce the severity of clinical manifestations.
According to the instructions of carbamazepine is contraindicated in:
- Suppression of bone marrow hematopoiesis in history;
- Hepatic porphyria;
- The simultaneous use of MAO inhibitors and within 2 weeks after their withdrawal;
- Hypersensitivity to any component of carbamazepine.
Carbamazepine is used with caution in:
- Prostatic hyperplasia;
- Increased intraocular pressure;
- Mixed forms of seizures, including absence;
- Low levels of white blood cells or platelets;
- In old age;
- Hyponatremia breeding;
- Heart, liver or kidney failure.
When pregnancy Carbamazepine prescribed with caution because of an increased risk of intrauterine growth disorders.
During the period of breastfeeding The drug is contraindicated.
Instructions for use Carbamazepine
According to the instructions of carbamazepine can be used regardless of the meal, washed down with a small amount of liquid.
In the treatment of epilepsy, carbamazepine is desirable to use as monotherapy. Treatment starts with minimal doses - from poltabletki to carbamazepine tablets two times a day. Gradually adjusted dose to two tablets 2-3 times daily. Depending on the disease the dose may be increased, but not more than 10 tablets per day carbamazepine.
Children under 5 years are starting treatment with 20-60 mg per day. The dose is increased slowly, every two days on 20-60 mg. For older children, the initial dose is poltabletki carbamazepine per day, and increased weekly by 100 mg.
If necessary, the prolonged use of the maintenance dose to children is calculated on the basis of body weight and about 10-20 mg per 1 mg of weight. The dose should be divided into 2-3 doses.
For accurate dosing for children is better to use liquid oral forms of carbamazepine.
The initial dose of trigeminal or glossopharyngeal nerve is 1-2 carbamazepine tablets a day, then gradually increase the dose twice. After the cessation of pain is reduced to its effective.
The average dose of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, with polyuria and polydipsia with diabetes insipidus - 2-3 times a day 1 tablet. The same dose is used for pain relief in diabetic neuropathy.
The daily dose for acute manic states and maintenance treatment of bipolar affective disorders is quite high and amounts to 2-8 tablets of carbamazepine, divided into several stages. In severe cases, the dose can be increased quickly.
Carbamazepine can cause quite severe side effects: dizziness, ataxia, orofacial dyskinesia, headache, diplopia, muscle dystonia, nystagmus, oculomotor disturbances, peripheral neuropathy, paresis, paresthesia. Most often it reviews Carbamazepine causes a feeling of fatigue, tremor, horeoatetoidnye disorder, somnolence, and taste disturbances.
Carbamazepine can cause mental disorders, manifested visual and auditory hallucinations, anxiety and depression, aggressive behavior and disorientation.
In the opinion of carbamazepine may also cause various skin disorders - allergic dermatitis, erythroderma, urticaria, pruritus, exfoliative dermatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hair loss, sweating.
The most frequent violations of the cardiovascular system - congestive heart failure, reduction or increase in blood pressure, arrhythmia, intracardiac conduction disorders, thrombophlebitis.
Diarrhea, nausea, taste disturbance, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain, dry mouth, in the opinion of carbamazepine - the most common disorders of the digestive tract.
Also, when using carbamazepine possible swelling, weight gain, fluid retention, acute intermittent porphyria, kidney failure, variegated porphyria, folic acid deficiency, urinary retention, leukocytosis, aplastic anemia, albuminuria, sexual dysfunction, late cutaneous porphyria, increased intraocular pressure, muscle pain, agranulocytosis, dyspnea, pneumonia, pure red cell aplasia, frequent urination.
With an overdose of carbamazepine is usually observed increased described side effects.
With simultaneous use of many drugs may be a strengthening of the toxic effect of carbamazepine, so before the joint use of drugs, be sure to consult with your doctor.
Carbamazepine related to drug list B. Shelf life - 3 years.