Butorphanol - a strong painkiller intended for parenteral use.
Butorphanol is an opioid analgesic, has a specific effect on the central nervous system. Butorphanol relates to agonists-antagonists, which block the opioid receptor part, and the part is excited. The speed of onset of effect, strength, and duration of action of butorphanol is similar to morphine, but inferior to him in efficiency.
Apart from analgesia, the drug also has a sedative effect, stimulates the gag reflex, reduces the excitability of the cough center, is miosis (pupil constriction).
It is almost unrelated to the central nervous system is capable of butorphanol include changes in bronchial tone, hemodynamic (blood flow through the vessels), the tone of the sphincter of the bladder, motor and secretory activity of the digestive tract.
Butorphanol is also able to increase systemic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and total peripheral vascular resistance, pulmonary artery pressure.
In the systemic circulation butorphanol absorbed 15 minutes after intramuscular and intranasal administration. It penetrates through the placental barrier and into breast milk. Butorphanol is metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine and faeces.
Instructions for butorphanol indicate the feasibility of this analgesic for moderate and expressed pain syndrome of various origin (including postoperative and labor pains), premedication of general anesthesia.
Instructions for use butorphanol
The recommended dose for intravenous administration of butorphanol is 1 mg and intramuscular - 2 mg.
The dosage interval should be 3-4 hours. For the elderly, pregnant women and patients with impaired liver or kidney function the initial dose should be half the size of normal, and the interval must be at least 6 hours.
When sedation intramuscularly 1-1 5 hours before surgery (before anesthesia indukatsionnoy phase) is introduced 2 mg butorphanol that of sedation corresponding to 80 mg of meperidine and 10 mg of morphine. Additional doses of anesthesia administered generally correspond to 0, 5-1 mg.
During labor, intravenous or intramuscular injection of 1-2 mg butorphanol is used, provided that the period of more than 37 weeks of pregnancy and there is no intrauterine fetal abnormalities.
The interval between administration of the drug during childbirth should not be less than 4 hours and the last use of butorphanol - later than 4 hours before the expected date of birth.
A single dose of the drug for cancer patients is 1-2 mg, and the daily - 2-24 mg.
According to the instructions, butorphanol can often induce vomiting (13%), dizziness (19%), and somnolence (43%).
To a lesser degree of side reactions occur such as:
- nervousness, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, depression, headache, tremor, tinnitus, eye pain;
- tachycardia, decreased or increased blood pressure, chest pain, fainting;
- epigastric pain, constipation, anorexia, dryness of the oral mucosa;
- urticaria, rash, pruritus;
- excessive sweating, a feeling of heat, shallow breathing, a decrease in urination.
The use of butorphanol is prohibited in case of hypersensitivity to the active component, while breastfeeding and during pregnancy (except for pain relief during labor).
Every doctor, appointing butorphanol, instructions to the drug should be carefully studied, because in addition to contraindications, the analgesic has several limitations:
- intracranial hypertension;
- traumatic brain injury;
- hepatic or renal failure;
- respiratory failure;
- acute myocardial infarction;
- congestive heart failure;
- arterial hypertension;
- coronary insufficiency;
- drug addiction;
- children and old age.
Store butorphanol should be performed in a dark place where the temperature corresponds to 5-30
Useful drug is considered to be within 2 years from the date of production.
Butorphanol tartrate for all characteristics is an analogue of butorphanol. Butorphanol tartrate produced as a solution for intramuscular injection, in unit-dose syringes (1 mL contains 2 mg of active substance). This release form allows you to quickly and easily use the drug in any, even under extreme conditions, since the use of a syringe-tube eliminates manipulation opening vials and syringe filling. Produced butorphanol tartrate Russian concern "Styrene".