Iceland Moss or Icelandic moss - lichen long, belonging to the family parmeliaceae.
The plant is a symbiosis of two microorganisms - algae and fungi. Both organisms are so closely linked that represent a single integrated organism.
Moss tsetrariya appearance is erect shrubs improperly-ribbon-like blades, narrow, leathery-cartilaginous, wide reaches 0, 3-0, 5 cm, and a height - 10 cm, greenish-brown, with short dark eyelashes. The edges of the blades lightly wrapped to the top.
Sometimes the ends of the blades developed apothecia, or fruiting bodies, cup-shaped with a slightly serrated edge, a brownish tint. The apothecia develop bags disputes. Spores colorless, unicellular, epileptic form 8 pieces in each bag.
Distribution Iceland Moss
Moss tsetrarii widespread in Australia, America, Asia and Europe. It is found in Central and Northern Europe, in the forest zone and the tundra of Siberia, the Ukraine - in the Carpathians. In Europe, growing in the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Balkans. In the northern part of Russia it is more common in the European part. It grows in the mountains of the Far East, Sayan, Altai and the Caucasus. It is a typical representative of barren open spaces and pine forests. It grows in the tundra, in the highlands (up to an altitude of 1500 m above sea level and above), on the grassy and rocky areas in the mountain forests, alpine meadows.
Tsetrariya prefers sandy unshaded area, forming pure thickets. It can be found in the heather, where it grows in small groups, and wetlands.
Collecting and harvesting medicinal plants tsetrarii
For therapeutic purposes, using the dried thallus tsetrarii. It has a bitter taste and slimy weak peculiar smell. Thallus dried in the shade or in the sun, laying a thin layer on a cloth or paper. Procurement of raw materials is carried out mainly in the summer.
Store raw materials in tightly closed cans or boxes with paper lining in a dark cool and dry place.
The chemical composition of tsetrarii began several hundred years ago and today it is well understood.
Thallus consists mainly of carbohydrates, among which there izolihenin, lihenin, umbilitsin, mannitol galaktomannat, chitin, sucrose, erythritol, hemicellulose and others.
Thallus Icelandic moss is able to accumulate up to 80% of polysaccharides that the extraction of hot water soluble, forming a dense mass. Hydrolysis lihenin giving glucose.
In Mohe tsetrariya contains organic acids, which are called lichen. That acid give the plant a bitter taste and cause its antibiotic and tonic properties.
Addition of acids, the proteins contained in the thallus, gum, wax, fat, ascorbic acid, vitamin B12, pentacyclic triterpenes fridelin, naphthoquinone (juglone), minerals and pigments.
Interesting fact - in Mohe tsetrariya antiscorbutic vitamin C contained in an easily digestible form, and stored it in the dried plant for three years.
Application Iceland Moss in folk medicine
There is evidence that the plant was used for medicinal purposes in ancient Egypt, for two thousand years BC
In the Middle Ages, has been widely used Iceland Moss in folk medicine in the Nordic countries - Sweden, Norway, Iceland. It was used as the coating agent for bronchitis and colds.
In the form of decoctions and infusions in Scandinavia plant was used to excite the appetite and as a tonic, nourishing and emollient.
Iceland Moss is widely used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, laryngitis, whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis and other bronchopulmonary diseases.
Moss tsetrariya used in malignant tumors, bleeding, as well as a vehicle capable of suppressing women overly sexual excitability.
Topically in the form of lotions tsetrariyu used for ulcers, wounds, burns, abscesses, acne, boils, eczema microbial.
Application Iceland Moss in official medicine
As a medicinal plant use Iceland Moss began in the 17th century. During the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries the use of moss tsetrariya in official medicine was very common. This plant has been a traditional remedy for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, and the thallus is part of many drugs.
The first pharmaceutical product based on lichen acids was created in the 50s of the 20th century in Germany and was called Evozin. It had antimicrobial activity due to the presence therein of usnic acid and evernievoy. It is prescribed for the treatment of lupus and other diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Against pulmonary tuberculosis, German scientists have suggested the drug-eosin-2, which included, besides usnic and evernievoy acids were the lichen acids are kaperatovaya, fizodovaya, atronarinovaya.
From skin diseases and tuberculosis successfully used a mixture of streptomycin and usnic acids.
In Japan it was developed antibiotic agent from tsetrariya used in the treatment of actinomycosis.
In therapeutic practice has also found use Iceland Moss, thanks to its expectorant and soothing properties, due to the high content of her gums. It is used in many of bronchopulmonary diseases.
In Finland, from tsetrarii patented method of obtaining funds from the common cold, cough and asthma, using dandelion extracts of yarrow herb, rhizomes of Potentilla, grass mother and stepmother, willow bark, bearberry leaves and fruits juniper.
In the Soviet Union in 1956 the drug was obtained on the basis of sodium usninat usnic acid, which was used as an antimicrobial agent in the treatment of fractures, burns and wounds. On the basis of sodium usninata it was released drug Balsam Bean.
There are many other drugs, which include tsetrariya:
- Bronhikal plus for children (cough syrup);
- Bronchialtee 400 (tea drink that is used in the cold);
- Isla-Mint Pastillen (cough lozenges);
- Salus Bronchial-Tee (tea from inflammation of the respiratory organs);
Contraindications Iceland Moss
Application Iceland Moss and preparations with its content is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, gastric ulcer and gastritis with high acidity.