Chamomile drug - an annual plant belonging to the family Asteraceae (or Compositae).
Description of chamomile
The stalk reaches a height of 40 cm. The leaves of the plants are sessile, dissected into narrow lobes. The inflorescences are solitary at the ends of the stems. It blooms from May to July. During flowering has a pleasant aroma.
In the wild plant is found in the central zone and the south of Europe. It grows in vacant lots and fields, forest edges, roadsides and hillsides. As medicinal plants are cultivated on plantations.
In order to use medicinal plants flowers.
History of application
The plant was used for medicinal purposes in the days of ancient Rome and Greece.
Description of chamomile can be found in the fundamental work of the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder's "Natural History." He called this plant chamaemellon (in Greek chamai means "low", and mellon - «apple").
A common Russian name of the plant, "daisy" is borrowed from the Polish language and comes from the word romana, which translates from the Latin as "Roman".
The plant is rich in a variety of biologically active substances. In inflorescences contain a small amount of essential oils (0, 2-0, 8%), as a part of which can be found seksviterpeny (myrcene, Farnese), and-bisabol, chamazulene, cadinene, isovaleric, nonyl, and caprylic acid.
Also in the inflorescences of chamomile drug contains sugar, phytosterols, flavonoids (patuletin, apigenin, hrizosplenin, hrizoeriol and their glycosides), protein substances, luteolin, kosmosiin, kvertsimeritin, gum, pectins, tannins and mucous substances, coumarin, methoxylated derivatives, triterpenoid alcohols, choline, beta carotene and other vitamins, ascorbic, salicylic and nicotinic acids, and many other useful compounds.
The use chamomile in folk medicine
In the medical field chamomile is one of the most popular plants. For the treatment use extracts and plant extracts flower baskets, and essential oil.
Chamomile has been applied as a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, analgesic, astringent, weak antibacterial, antispasmodic and cholagogue. Infusions, teas and decoctions of plants taken for insomnia, diarrhea, flatulence, diseases of the biliary tract and liver, intestinal cramps and as a diaphoretic. Extracts of plants positively affect the central nervous system to stimulate the secretory function of gastric juice and bile.
The use chamomile in the official medicine
The official medicine preparations based plants use for liver and digestive tract, mucous irritation of the pharynx and the oral cavity as well as inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
In the pharmaceutical industry of the inflorescences of chamomile drug manufactured medicines, including herbal teas, rekutan, romazulan, Rotokan and others.
Essential oil of chamomile has a diaphoretic, antiseptic and soothing effect, relieves pain, reduces flatulence, normalizes the function of digestion, reduces inflammation in the body.
Chamomile: the use in cosmetics
In the cosmetics industry plant is widely used in the manufacture of children's care products (lotions, soaps, oils and creams). It is part of shampoos, suntan, balms, lipsticks, toothpastes.
The infusion of chamomile drug - popularly known means to make light shine, and decoctions of plants make skin smooth, soft and velvety. Extracts of the plant have a skin moisturizer, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, emollient and anti-allergic effect.
Chamomile: a description of contraindications
The use of drugs based on plants is contraindicated in pregnancy. A chamomile essential oil in high doses can cause headaches and general weakness.