Bile ducts

Bile ducts. general characteristics

Bile ducts - channel system designed to drain bile into the duodenum from the gallbladder and liver. The innervation of the bile ducts is carried out by means of the branches of the nerve plexus located in the liver. Blood supplied from the hepatic artery blood flow is carried into the portal vein. Lymph flows off to the lymph nodes that are in the area of ​​the portal vein.  Bile ducts - channel system, which eliminates the bile into the duodenum

Moving bile in the biliary tract is due to the secretory pressure exercised by the liver, as well as by the motor function of the sphincters, the gallbladder and because of the tone of the walls themselves of the bile ducts.

The structure of the bile ducts

Depending on the deployment share on extrahepatic ducts (here are the left and right hepatic ducts, common hepatic, gall general and cystic duct) and intrahepatic. Hepatic bile duct is thus formed by the merger of the two sides (left and right) hepatic ducts that trap bile from the liver of each share.

The cystic duct, in turn, derives from the gall bladder, and then merge with the common hepatic forms the common bile. The latter consists of four parts: supraduodenal, retropankreaticheskoy, retroduodenalnoy, intramural. Opening on faterova nipple duodenal intramural portion of the common bile duct forms the mouth, where the pancreatic and bile ducts are united in the so-called liver-pancreas vial.


Bile way prone to various diseases below describes the most common ones:

  • Cholelithiasis .  It is not exclusive to the gallbladder, but also for ducts .  Pathological conditions which often exposed persons, full-bodied .  Is the formation of stones in the bile ducts and gall bladder as a result of stagnation and in violation of the exchange of certain substances .  The composition of the rocks is very diverse: it is a mixture of bile acids, bilirubin, cholesterol, etc. .  element .  Often the stones in the bile ducts do not deliver tangible discomfort to the patient, making their carrier may be calculated over the years .  In other situations, the stone can clog the bile ducts, damaging their walls, which leads to inflammation of the bile ducts, accompanied by biliary colic .  The pain is localized in the right upper quadrant and gives in the back .  Often accompanied by vomiting, nausea, fever .  Treatment of bile duct stones in the formation often includes diet, based on the use of foods rich in vitamins A, K, D, low in calories and eliminating foods rich in animal fats;  Gallstone disease - the formation of stones in the bile ducts, or bladder
  • Dyskinesia. A common disease in which disturbed motor function of the biliary tract. It is characterized by changes in pressure in different parts of the bile gallbladder and ducts. Dyskinesia can be as an independent disease, and accompanied by pathological conditions of the biliary tract. Dyskinesia symptoms are a feeling of heaviness and pain in the stomach area verhnepravoy that occurs after 2 h. After a meal. They may also experience nausea, vomiting. Treatment of the bile ducts in the dyskinesia induced by neuroticism, carried out using funds allocated for the treatment of neuroses (especially valerian root);
  • Cholangitis, or inflammation of the bile ducts. In most cases observed in acute cholecystitis, but can be an independent disease. Manifested in the form of pain in the right upper quadrant, fever, profuse sweating, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Often occurs in the background cholangitis jaundice;
  • Acute cholecystitis. Inflammation in the bile ducts and gall bladder as a result of infection. Just as colic, accompanied by pain in the right hypochondrium, fever (from subfebrile to high values). Furthermore, an increase in the size of the gallbladder. Usually occurs after the adoption of an abundant fatty foods, alcohol;
  • Cholangiocarcinoma or bile duct cancer. Cancer prone intrahepatic, distal bile duct and liver located in the gate. As a rule, the risk of cancer increases with chronic course of a number of diseases, including cyst biliary tract stones in the bile ducts, cholangitis, and others. The symptoms are quite varied and may manifest as jaundice, itching in the ducts, fever, vomiting and / or nausea and other. Treatment is carried out by the removal of the bile ducts (if the tumor is limited to the inner lumen of the ducts), or if the tumor has spread beyond the liver, bile ducts recommended removing a diseased portion of the liver. This can be a donor liver transplantation.

Methods of investigation of the bile ducts

Diagnosis of diseases of the biliary tract is carried out using modern methods, the disclosures of which are presented below:

  • Intraoperative haledo- or cholangioscopy. Methods suitable in determining choledochotomy;
  • ultrasound diagnostics with high accuracy detect the presence of stones in the bile ducts. Also, the method helps to diagnose the condition of the walls of the bile ducts, their size, the presence of stones, etc .;
  • duodenal intubation - method, which is used not only for diagnostic purposes but also for therapeutic. He is in the introduction of stimuli (usually parenteral), stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and bile duct sphincter relaxation. Promotion of the probe through the digestive tract and causes the release of bile secretion. Evaluation of quality, along with bacteriological analyzes give an idea of ​​the presence or absence of a disease. Thus, this method allows us to study the motor function of the biliary tract, and to identify the blockage biliary tract stone.