The belly - unpaired bone lengthening with a slightly convex front and rear concave surface.
The structure of the sternum
The sternum is located in the department of anterior chest wall. It consists of three parts: arms, body and xiphoid process. All three parts are interconnected by means of cartilaginous layers which ossify with age.
The handle of the sternum is the widest part of it. From above it is thicker, thinner bottom, and the bottom has a jugular notch on the top edge, which is easy to probe through the skin. On the sides are the jugular notch clavicular notch - a place in which the sternum is connected to the end of the clavicle sternum.
Slightly lower on the side edge, is cutting the first edge - junction with the cartilage of the first rib. A little below you can see a small indentation - the upper part of the rib of the second cutting edge. The lower part of the cuttings is directly on the body of the sternum.
The body of the sternum longer handle almost three times, but already it. In women, the body is shorter than that of men.
In front of you can see traces of fusion of the sternum during embryonic development. They look like a cross, slightly noticeable line.
Cartilage connecting the upper edge of the body with the bottom of the handle is called synchondrosises handle. The handle and body are connected, forming a blunt rear open angle, which is at the level of connection of the second rib. It is easy to feel out through the skin.
On the side of the body of the sternum are two partial and four full fin clippings - junction with the cartilage of ribs (from the second to seventh). One is located on top sirloin incomplete side of the breast bone and cartilage corresponds to the second rib, the other - from the bottom side of the matches and the seventh rib cartilage. Between them are four full notch corresponding to the third, fourth, fifth and sixth ribs.
Part of the side sections located between two adjacent rib clippings have the form semilunar recesses.
The shortest part of the sternum is the xiphoid process. It can vary in shape and size, have a hole in the middle, or forked tip. Blunting its sharp tip or may be facing both forward and backward. At the top of the lateral part of the process is incomplete Tenderloin connecting to the seventh rib cartilage.
Along with the body xiphoid forms synchondrosis xiphoid. In his old age he ossified xiphoid process and merges with the body of the sternum.
Sometimes above the handle in the middle of the sternum suprahyoid muscle groups or medial leg-clavicular sternocleidomastoid muscle sternum range from one to three nagrudinnyh bones which are connected to its handle.
The main muscle of the sternum is the pectoralis major, which begins in the medial clavicle, passes through the body and the handle of the sternum, and the rectus muscle of the abdomen.
Pain and burning sensation in the sternum
Most often, pain in the sternum associated with damage to internal organs and osteochondral its structures, as well as psychogenic diseases. Often pain in the sternum is a symptom of myocardial infarction, angina, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, mitral valve prolapse, pleurisy, dissecting aortic aneurysm, malignant neoplasm of the lung, phrenic abscess.
Pain and burning sensation in the sternum is an integral symptom:
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal disease);
- Broncho-pulmonary system;
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- Blood diseases;
- Injuries and fractures of the sternum.
In addition, the possible origin of psychogenic pain in the sternum (hysteria, dystonia).
Fracture of the sternum
The trauma fracture of the sternum is quite rare. Generally, a fracture occurs as a result of strong direct blow to the chest, with a traffic accident (as a result of hitting the chest of the steering column) or as a result of a strong compression of the thorax. Often accompanied by a shift fracture fragments. Displaced fracture is characterized by indentation into the center of the sternum.
Symptoms of a fracture of the sternum
The most obvious symptom of a fracture is pain in the injured spot, which intensified during breathing. In the area of the fracture can be seen bleeding and swelling. Palpation is painful, and in some patients can be felt fragments of the sternum.
Fracture without displacement may not cause severe pain, especially if the injury is combined with numerous broken ribs.
Fracture with strong displacement of bone fragments can damage the organs of the chest. As a result, damage to the lungs or pleura may develop a pneumothorax (accumulation of air) or hemothorax (collection of blood) in the chest. Such complications are a serious danger to the life of the patient and require immediate medical attention.