Tibia - the largest and longest bone of the lower leg. It consists bone
the body and the two epiphysis - lower distal and proximal upper.
The structure of the tibia
The body of the bone is a triangular shape with three edges - front, medial and intercostals, and three surfaces - medial, posterior and lateral.
The front edge of the bone has a pointed shape and resembles the type of comb. The upper part of it goes into the tuberosity. Interosseous edge is sharpened shape and form of the scallop. Comb it is directed towards the fibula. The medial surface of the bone is slightly convex and well detectable through the skin with the front edge of the body of the tibia.
Lateral (perednenaruzhnaya) slightly concave surface of the bone. A rear surface has a flat shape. On the back surface of the soleus muscle is the line that runs from the lateral condyle medially and down. Slightly below situated nutritious hole, which extends distally nutritious feed.
The proximal epiphysis of the tibia slightly expanded. His side sections - a lateral and medial condyles. Outside the lateral condyle is flat fibular articular surface. At the top of the proximal epiphysis of the average department is intercondylar eminence, which can distinguish between two hillocks:
- internal medial intercondyloid, which can be discerned behind the back intercondylar field;
- the outer lateral intercondyloid, which is located in the front front intercondylar box.
The two fields are the place of fastening cruciate knee ligament. On each side of intercondylar eminence of the upper articular surface are drawn to each condyle articular surface having a concave shape - the medial and lateral. The concave articular surface is limited on the periphery of the edge of the tibia.
The distal epiphysis of the bone is rectangular in shape. On its lateral surface is fibular notch adjacent to the distal epiphysis of the fibula. On the back surface of the distal epiphysis passes malleolar sulcus. In front of the sulcus medial border of the distal tibial epiphysis becomes medial malleolus - downward process, which is well palpable. On the lateral aspect of the ankle is articular surface of the ankle. It moves on to the lower surface of the bone and extends into the lower concave articular surface of the tibia.
Fracture of the tibia
All fractures of the tibia are divided into:
For intra-articular fractures are fractures of the medial malleolus of the tibia and the condyles. The medial malleolus is the inner ankle bone stabilizer. Typically, it is the result of a broken tibia torsion fixed foot. It is also often the inner ankle fracture occurs as a result of non-physiological sharp turn of foot.
The main symptoms of tibial fractures:
- Aching tibia and motion palpation;
- Because of the displacement of bone fragments deformed tibia (limb axis changes);
- There is swelling;
- It is impossible to carry out an axial load on the leg.
Fracture treatment is advantageously carried out by means of surgery. Typically, a patient can carry the load on the affected leg is already on the following day after the operation.
Quite often, when a sore tibia, this may indicate the presence of cysts.
Bone cyst - a disease in which a thickening formed in the bone cavity.
Still do not clear the origin of bone cysts. It was found that the cysts of the tibia are the result of hemodynamic disorders in a limited area of the bone. In fact, the formation of cysts is dystrophy. The basis of the formation of cysts is a violation of intraosseous blood flow and activation of lysosomal enzymes, resulting in the destruction of collagen, glycosaminoglycans and other proteins. According to the International Classification referred to as a cyst tumor diseases.
Bone cysts may be solitary and aneurysmal. Solitary cyst develops over a long period of time, is more common in adolescence in males. Aneurysmal cyst occurs suddenly and develops quickly. In most cases, aneurysmal cyst results from direct trauma bone.
Despite the general nature of these diseases, they are usually clearly distinguish, since they have different symptoms and radiographic picture.