General characteristics of the disease
Dementia or dementia - this is one of the varieties of cognitive mental disorders associated with cognitive sphere of man. Depending on the severity of symptoms of dementia disease can be mild, moderate or severe form.
When mild dementia worsen only professional quality of the patient, and reduced its social activity. Moderate symptoms of dementia is the loss of skills to use the majority of household items. At the stage of severe dementia completely maladjusted person and dependent on others. He is unable to cope with the simplest problems of hygiene or eating.
Depending on the cause of dementia are two main types of the disease: senile dementia (aka senile dementia) and vascular dementia.
Senile or senile dementia is caused by age-related changes in brain structure. Changes take place gradually at the neuronal level and provoked both inadequate supply of blood to the brain and other chronic diseases or acute infections. The cause of senile dementia may serve as metabolic problems, pathology of the kidneys and adrenal glands, immune deficiency, cancer or neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.
Senile dementia - irreversible damage that affects all cognitive mental: thinking, memory, language, attention. Progression of the disease is accompanied by loss of acquired skills. The ability to acquire new knowledge in patients with senile dementia also severely restricted.
One of the main symptoms of dementia is the stability of this kind of manifestation of symptoms of dementia unlike delirium, when the patient has bouts of temporal disorientation.
As domestic definitions for senile dementia often used the expression "senility." Disease susceptible to the elderly over 65 years. From the various manifestations of the symptoms of dementia by an average of 5-15% of the population suffers from Earth retirement age.
Vascular dementia is caused by cerebrovascular disorder caused by lesions of the brain tissue. For vascular dementia can lead the majority of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia, cerebrovascular, etc.
The results of post-mortem study of brain structures of patients with vascular dementia suggest that the cause of the disease is often a heart attack. Or rather not the myocardial infarction, and formed as a result of his brush. The probability of developing vascular dementia depends not on the size of the damaged cerebral artery, and the total volume of necrotic cerebral arteries.
Vascular type dementia symptoms is a sharp decline in cerebral blood flow and metabolism. If the disease is accompanied by laminar necrosis with loss of neurons and glial proliferation of tissue may be serious complications such as embolism (blockage of blood vessels), and cardiac arrest.
Risk factors for vascular dementia are considered various cardiac diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia (elevated levels of lipids in the blood).
Symptoms of vascular dementia, the type most commonly diagnosed between the ages of 60-75 years. The disease in 1, 5 times more common in men and 50% of all cases of diagnosed dementia.
Common symptoms of different types of dementia
The average duration of 5 years with the disease increases gradually changes the personality of the patient. The first clear symptoms of dementia - the sharpening of certain character traits, such as frugality, obstinacy, suspicion, etc. Sick man with progressive vascular dementia or senile conservatism manifests in his actions, judgments and hard to accept something new. His interests are narrowed, deteriorating ability to mental activity, lost the moral norms of behavior.
As the disease progresses people can hardly play in recent memory the events. Then it lost orientation in time and space, although the manner of behavior, speech, facial expressions and gestures for a long time remain unaltered.
Physical symptoms of dementia: exhaustion, tremors of hands, changes in gait - develop only at the stage of the disease the most serious degree, along with the growing signs of disintegration of the personality.
Diagnosis of dementia
Diagnostic signs of dementia are atrophic processes in the brain. Their recognition performed by computed tomography brain. In marked decrease in cognitive abilities of the patient and found vascular brain lesions diagnosis is not difficult.
Much has been written about in medical journals additional diagnostic methods differentiate vascular dementia from Alzheimer's disease - the so-called scale Khachin. It is a list of 13 symptoms of dementia. Match 7 points or more indicates the likelihood of vascular dementia, a statement of less than 7 symptoms characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.
Treatment of dementia
Effective treatments for dementia at the moment, especially when it comes to heavy-type senile dementia. However, with proper care and symptomatic treatment of dementia possibly serious alleviating the plight of the patient.
Recommended conditions for the treatment of dementia - home furnishings. Hospital and placing the patient in a psychiatric ward is recommended only if heavy degree of senile dementia. The desired mode of the day, which should ensure that the relatives of the patient - a maximum of activity and simple household chores.
Psychotropic drugs in the treatment of dementia are appointed only for insomnia or hallucinations. In the early stages of dementia advisability of appointing nootoropov and later tranquilizers and nootropics.
Effective prevention of vascular dementia or senile as the treatment does not exist.