General characteristics of the disease
Thyroid - this whole group of diseases of different etiologies with one common feature - inflammation of the thyroid tissue. To distinguish four basic forms tireodita:
- autoimmune thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis;
- Acute thyroiditis, which in turn can be purulent, or purulent;
- subacute thyroiditis, or De Quervain's thyroiditis
- and asymptomatic thyroiditis.
Each of the forms of the disease in need of a particular treatment.
Autoimmune thyroiditis chronic form
Autoimmune thyroiditis is the result of the destruction of thyroid follicular cell. This process develops due to a genetic defect in the immune response of the body's own thyrocytes. In patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in the form of blood circulating antibodies to the cells of the thyroid gland.
The disease is often associated with other autoimmune diseases caused by: primary gipokortitsizm, hepatitis, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and has the highest risk (70%), complicated by the development of hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone deficiency).
Euthyroid asymptomatic phase of chronic thyroiditis can last for decades. In this regard, difficult to establish the exact percentage of occurrence of the disease. Relatives of patients diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis antibodies to cells of the thyroid gland in 50% of diagnosed cases.
Among the symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis in the form of subclinical and clinical stage called:
- increase the volume of the thyroid gland,
- discomfort in the thyroid gland,
- labored swallowing,
- joint pain.
In chronic thyroiditis complicated by hypothyroidism, the patient manifested:
- trembling fingers,
A special form of autoimmune thyroiditis is a postpartum thyroiditis. It is observed in 5-9% of all pregnancies. Symptoms of this form of thyroiditis usually go away without treatment within a year after birth.
Subacute thyroiditis - an inflammation of the thyroid gland suspected viral origin. This form of thyroiditis usually occurs after 2 weeks after undergoing infection: influenza, mumps, measles, etc.
Inflammation of the tissues of the thyroid thyroiditis manifested by the following symptoms:
- decreased performance,
- a feeling of weakness,
- aching joints and muscles,
Among the local symptoms of subacute thyroiditis form called swelling and tenderness of the thyroid gland. The pain may be felt in the chin, ear or neck. The most common disease diagnosed in women 20-50 years of age. Men diagnosed with subacute thyroiditis is 5 times less than that of women.
With this variety of the disease, there are no specific symptoms of thyroiditis. The only sign of pathology is a slight increase in the size of the thyroid gland. After a few weeks the inflammation passes alone, and the size of the body returns to normal. In time transient increase in thyroid gland in the body of the patient increases the level of thyroid hormones.
Asymptomatic thyroiditis has a high likelihood of relapse. The nature of its origin medicine has not been studied.
Acute thyroiditis - the rarest form of the disease. Purulent or purulent inflammation of the thyroid gland tissue triggers an infection caused by tonsillitis, pneumonia or sepsis. Acute purulent thyroiditis may also occur as a result of injury or thyroid radiation exposure.
Symptoms of acute tireodita include:
- seal the thyroid gland,
- the appearance of an abscess,
- a sharp rise in temperature to 40 degrees,
- pain in the lower part of the head,
- signs of intoxication.
At the beginning of treatment untimely tireodita acute form of the disease can lead to irreversible failure of the thyroid gland.
The diagnosis of "chronic autoimmune thyroiditis form" is confirmed in case of a patient of a large number of antibodies to the cells of the thyroid gland. To set a definitive diagnosis "thyroiditis" requires biopsy of the thyroid gland.
Subacute thyroiditis is diagnosed based on the patient's complaints of pain in the thyroid gland and painful swallowing. In the history of the patient in this case it should be fixed recently moved infection. Confirm the diagnosis of "subacute thyroiditis" by using the ultrasound test and Crile. Last is the administration of prednisolone and control of the patient. In subacute thyroiditis daily dose of prednisolone (30 mg) significantly facilitates the patient's state of health.
In asymptomatic thyroiditis in the blood of a patient diagnosed with a large number of thyroid hormone and low levels of thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine.
The diagnosis of acute thyroiditis is also used to study the composition of blood. In this form of the disease is detected high levels of white blood cells and increased ESR. The amount of thyroid hormones is usually not changed. Visually determined portion softening thyroid abscess formed hotbed.
Effective treatment of autoimmune tireodita form guaranteeing the healing of the sick, is not currently developed. The standard treatment is a form of chronic tireodita lifelong thyroid replacement therapy means, for example, L-thyroxine.
Through reception of artificial thyroid hormone fails to reduce the size of the crop and prevent further organ tissue hypertrophy. Postnatal in treating autoimmune thyroiditis, usually not needed. The exception is the variety of chronic thyroiditis lasting a year or more.
In the treatment of subacute thyroiditis widely used form glucocorticoid, such as prednisolone. It helps to relieve swelling of the thyroid gland. The duration of therapy is especially individual.
In the treatment of acute suppurative thyroiditis form used antibiotics and antihistamines. At the same time in the hospital held an intravenous drip of saline solutions, appointed by copious drinking to reduce the general intoxication.
If there is an abscess, surgical treatment of thyroiditis. It consists of incision and drainage of purulent focus. If the abscess is not removed in time, it is possible to spontaneous erection and penetration of pus in the mediastinum or the patient's trachea. With adequate treatment of acute thyroiditis recovery occurs within 1-2 months.