General characteristics of the disease
Thyroid cancer is a serious endocrinological disease characterized by changes in the structure of thyroid cells and abnormal growth of. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the world is relatively not high - no more than 2% of all cancer cases.
The most common symptoms of thyroid cancer are diagnosed in the elderly or in people exposed to radiation. After the Ukrainian Chernobyl disaster and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki signs of thyroid cancer have been found in children who had in utero exposure. In all other cases, thyroid cancer, and especially metastases of thyroid cancer that has spread from another disease of the affected organ - the phenomenon is extremely rare for children and not typical.
One of the causes of thyroid cancer in addition to radiation is also called chronic lack of iodine in the body. The role in the development of thyroid cancer of various disorders of the immune-neuro-endocrine nature, manifesting the formation of goiter, benign tumors or cysts of the thyroid gland. The factors for thyroid cancer rank as the genetic family history of patients.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer
Often the first symptom of thyroid cancer is the detection of a small seal on the organ, the so-called nodules. It is usually painless, and the size of the body is not changed. With the progression of the disease and the further growth of the tumor to the symptoms of thyroid cancer added to the feeling of pressure in the body and increase the adjacent lymph nodes.
Sometimes the disease comes amid other signs of thyroid cancer hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone deficiency), or, conversely, is attached to the disease is moderate thyrotoxicosis (excess thyroid hormone). For large size of the tumor and metastases of thyroid cancer in the trachea or the esophagus may be other signs of thyroid cancer: shortness of breath, swallowing difficulties, hoarseness, etc.
Stage and form of thyroid cancer
Approximately 90% of the diagnosed tumors of the thyroid gland, it is benign: papillary or follicular. In the remaining 10% are forms of thyroid cancer anaplastic, medullary and mixed forms. Each form is characterized by the dominant lesion of a certain type of thyroid cells, the disease progresses at different speeds and different numbers of malignant nodes. The most rare, not more than 1% of all cases of cancer of the thyroid gland, there are metastases of thyroid cancer (they - metastatic cancer).
As with other cancers, thyroid cancer taken differentiate in stages depending on the degree of disease development. A sign of thyroid cancer stage I is the presence of a single tumor metastasis-free and deformation of the capsule body. The symptoms of thyroid cancer stage II referred absence of metastases at diagnosis of single or multiple malignant nodes and damage the capsule body.
Thyroid cancer stage III is characterized by lesions of the surrounding lymph nodes, the deformation of the thyroid gland and compression of adjacent tissue. The disease is called metastatic stage IV thyroid cancer spread to distant lymph nodes and organs. Forecast of thyroid cancer in the stage I-II the most favorable. The peak incidence of thyroid cancer between the ages of 30-50 years, when the disease is most treatable.
Diagnosis of thyroid cancer
Diagnosis of thyroid cancer occurs in several stages. It starts with a simple palpation authority in the office of a physician or an endocrinologist and lasts more accurate and informative diagnostic methods. These include imaging of thyroid cancer ultrasound and MRI, as well as the functional study of the body using radioactive isotopes. The main method of determining the form of thyroid cancer - chemistry, so-called internal organ tissues biopsy, taking a fine needle biopsy.
Treatment of thyroid cancer
The method of treatment of thyroid cancer after the diagnosis is determined by the form and stage of disease. The best prognosis for thyroid cancer shows surgical treatment of the disease with complete removal of the organ. After surgery, a patient with symptoms were verified in thyroid cancer, hormone replacement therapy is appointed for life.
For small amounts of tumor in the treatment of thyroid cancer can be held conserving surgery with partial removal of the damaged organ tissues. Forecast of thyroid cancer in this case is much better when using complementary therapies such as oral therapy with radioactive iodine. It is considered an effective way of local radiation exposure to the body. And a man passing a treatment for thyroid cancer, not a danger to others.
At advanced stages of the disease prognosis for thyroid cancer is better in the appointment of combination therapy to the patient. It consists of a total or partial removal of the organ, the course of chemotherapy and radioactive iodine. Every few weeks, the patients underwent a control body scans to monitor the dynamics of the process of treatment of thyroid cancer. At low sensitivity abnormal cells to treatment with radioactive iodine chemistry and drug dose increase.
Forecast thyroid cancer survival statistics and some of the best among the majority of cancers.