Salmonellosis - an infectious disease that is caused by various species of bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Salmonellosis is diverse clinical manifestations and can be both asymptomatic and severe septic forms. Most of salmonellosis in children and adults leads to the defeat of the digestive tract, which is often complicated by dehydration and toxic shock.
At the moment, researchers know more than 2,000 serotypes of Salmonella. The main source of salmonellosis are domestic birds and animals, however, as the carrier and the person can act. Most often, salmonella, symptoms of which occur after eating contaminated food, developing due to improper cooking of food. A special risk group: the meat of mammals and birds, fish, eggs, milk, cottage cheese, sour cream. Infected with Salmonella can be used and contaminated water from open reservoirs or city water.
When ingested salmonella quickly overcome the protective barriers of the stomach and embedded in the lining of the small intestine. However, their activity is accompanied by intense release of toxins, which cause the main symptoms of salmonellosis.
Symptoms of salmonellosis, forms and clinical picture
The incubation period for infection ranges from a few hours to 2-3 days. Perhaps the development of nosocomial outbreaks, the disease is transmitted through everyday. In this case, the symptoms usually manifested salmonellosis after 3-8 days. Briefly discuss the main clinical forms of the disease salmonellosis.
- It is the most common and is diagnosed in 96-98% of patients attending health facilities with suspected salmonellosis. The consequences of this type of infection depends on the severity of the disease and the severity of clinical symptoms of salmonellosis, which include:
- overall sweetness;
- rise in body temperature to 40 degrees or higher;
- nausea, vomiting;
- pain in the umbilical region;
- frustration of a chair.
Symptoms of salmonellosis, indicating a change from the gastrointestinal tract, manifested through 2-3 days from the onset of the disease. In the early days the patient feels only a small intoxication and fever. In mild salmonella symptoms are rather weak, and the patient hardly feels unpleasant consequences of infection. A completely different picture is observed in cases where developing severe gastrointestinal salmonellosis being treated only in a hospital. In this form of salmonellosis patients suffer from:
- high temperature and fever lasting longer than 5 days;
- severe intoxication;
- fetid, watery stools (10 times a day or more), sometimes mixed with mucus;
- cyanosis of the skin;
- a significant drop in blood pressure;
- enlarged liver and spleen;
- changes in the kidney (albuminuria, oliguria, high nitrogen content;
- acute renal failure.
Untreated salmonellosis in children and adults leads to significant violations of water-salt metabolism, dehydration degree II-III. In this condition, patients are observed cramps, dry skin, cyanosis, Athos. Often fluid loss reaches 10-12% of body weight, which causes numerous violations of the basic systems of the body. The most frequent form of gastrointestinal clinical variant - Salmonella gastroenteritis, the consequences of which manifest themselves in the form of destructive changes of the colon and colitis.
Typhoid salmonellosis form
- Begins acute intestinal disorders manifested in the first days after the onset of the disease, however, a few days pass intestinal dysfunction. However, the temperature of the patient remains high. Also, patients are observed: apathy, lethargy, pale skin, herpes and roseolous rash. In some cases, typhoid salmonellosis leads to bradycardia, low blood pressure, cardiac muted tones. Symptoms of salmonellosis, indicating liver and spleen are shown at the end of the 1st week.
- Symptoms of this form is very pronounced and pose a threat to the patient's life. The disease starts with a high fever, and in the future condition of the patients is getting worse. Patients manifest the following symptoms of salmonellosis:
- excessive sweating;
- significant daily fluctuations in body temperature;
- the formation of purulent lesions in the locomotor system;
- endocarditis and aortitis with the subsequent development of the aneurysm;
- tonsillitis, cholecysto-occurrence of cholangitis.
Septic form leads to other serious consequences: meningitis (most often manifested as salmonellosis in children), liver abscess, infection, ovarian abscess gluteal region. Diseases characterized by a prolonged course and can result in lethal, so if in any doubt on salmonellosis, treatment should begin as soon as possible after consultation with specialists of medical institutions.
Prevention and treatment of salmonellosis
Patients with severe and moderate-severe salmonella indicated inpatient treatment. They prescribe drugs calcium (lactate, gluconate, glycerophosphate), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Detoxifying patients must take drugs based on cellulose and attapulgite, proteolytic enzymes, cytoprotectors. For the destruction of pathogens used antibiotics: nitrofuranovye tools and quinolines - in mild; fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins - if severe.
To speed up the treatment of salmonellosis, and achieve the best results for patients are assigned: a strict diet, rates of biological products, vitamin, binders, coating agents and carminative. Note also that the salmonella being treated properly, does not lead to serious consequences, so the appearance of any unpleasant symptoms, you should immediately see a doctor for testing and accurate diagnosis.
Salmonella Prevention aimed at preventing the spread of pathogens in domestic animals and birds, the observance of sanitary regime in the catering and food industries, correct heat treatment of products before they are eating.