It called reactive arthritis inflammation in joints that occurs in the background or after acute infection. Most often accompanies urinary, bowel or infectious diseases nasopharynx. Refers to the seronegative spondyloarthritis, ie Arthritis, in the event that in the biochemical analysis of the blood is not defined revmofaktor.
The incidence in different pathologies are not the same. The most common cause arthritis following pathogens: enterobacteria, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Salmonella, Shigella, some parasites.
The combination of arthritis, urethritis (cervicitis), conjunctivitis is called Reiter's syndrome.
Reactive arthritis is more common in men. People aged 20-40 years suffer from them more often than older persons. It often reactive arthritis in children.
The cause of reactive arthritis
In most cases, reactive arthritis arise from specific immune reaction cross-reaction. In this case, the cells are recognized by the organism's own immune system as foreign and are directed avtoagressiya - there is an inflammatory process. It occurs when cells of the organism and the pathogen have similar gene structure and, roughly speaking, the immune system simply "confuses" own tissue by an infectious agent.
The symptoms of reactive arthritis
Reactive arthritis usually occurs within 1-3 weeks after acute infection when, in fact, the symptoms have passed. There are obscheinfektsionnye symptoms: increased body temperature, there is a fever, general weakness, deteriorating health. Against this background, there is an inflammation of the joints.
Most often affects the joints of the lower limbs, especially the small joints of the fingers. As one can marvel at the joint and several at once.
When reactive arthritis joint becomes swollen. Swelling can be quite common: the fingers are like roller or sausage. The skin over the joint hyperemia, palpation warmer than unmodified tissue.
Very often, the symptoms of reactive arthritis symptoms are accompanied by inflammation of tendons. They appear in the form of pain, projected onto the place of attachment of the tendon to the bone.
Often accompanied by conjunctivitis, reactive arthritis, specific skin lesions in the form of rash (papules or plaques), change of color and structure of the nail plate. There may be signs of systemic inflammation: an increase in regional lymph nodes, as well as pericarditis, myocarditis, pleurisy, glomerulonephritis.
In most cases, reactive arthritis do not bear danger to life in the form monosimptoma. However, accompanying myocarditis, cardio, etc. the disease can cause disability and even death. Therefore, in the event of even a small clinic for reactive arthritis requires careful examination of the patient, and timely treatment.
Diagnosis of reactive arthritis
Are diagnosed with "arthritis" on the basis of inspection. However, in order to understand whether it is reactive and occurs in the form of a independent disease, you need a detailed survey.
First of all, carry out general tests: blood, urine, feces, biochemical research. Compulsory examinations are blood tests for possible infectious agent: identification of antibodies to gonococci, chlamydia. It is also necessary to carry out X-rays of the affected joints.
Due to the fact that reactive arthritis often accompanied by involvement of other organ systems, needed expert advice: urologist, gynecologist, ophthalmologist, cardiologist, rheumatologist, and conducting examination of the heart, eyes and other organs.
Treatment of reactive arthritis
All the treatment of reactive arthritis can be divided into medical and non-pharmacological.
Drug-free include limited physical activity, with a serious lesion up to bed rest. The possibility of fixing the joint, but the event does not necessarily and exclusively held to reduce the pain. You can put a chill on the affected joint. When calming inflammation appoint some physiotherapy and exercise therapy.
Drug treatment of reactive arthritis often begin with the appointment of antibiotic therapy after the preliminary determination of the pathogen. It depends on the accuracy of the diagnosis treatment prognosis of reactive arthritis.
As an adjuvant therapy administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) diclofenac, ibuprofen and nimesulide other. They will remove the inflammation and pain.
In severe and very severe condition can not do without hormone therapy. It may appoint a systemic and local (intra-articular injection of the drug).
In protracted and high activity within the process prescribed immunosuppressants: methotrexate, sulfasalazine, azathioprine. They reduce the activity of the immune response.
Particularly important timely treatment of reactive arthritis in children due to the unformed immune response and the frequency of complications.
Prevention of reactive arthritis
Prevention of reactive arthritis is reduced to the prevention of infectious diseases: hygiene practices, proper food preparation, compliance shelf life of food.
In the event of illness must be adequate treatment, appointed expert. Over the next 1-3 weeks should observe protective regime and avoid re-infection.