Brief description of the disease
Psittacosis - an acute infectious disease that manifests lesions of the central nervous system and lungs, fever, intoxication, an enlarged liver and spleen. Pathogen infections - Chlamydia Chlamydia psittaci - penetrated into the human body from the external environment, where it can persist for up to 2-3 weeks developing intracellularly.
The sources of infection psittacosis people are wild and domestic birds: ducks, turkeys, parakeets, canaries, budgies and urban pigeons. The most common treatment for psittacosis is required for people who are constantly in contact with birds, especially poultry farms and slaughterhouses workers. Basically psittacosis occur during the cold season, usually identified isolated cases of infection. Family outbreaks and epidemics are rare. Pathogen enters the body during inhalation of dust, which contains minute particles excreta of birds and, consequently, chlamydia. In addition, psittacosis in people can occur after accidental inhalation of particles down sick animals. Patients ornithosis not dangerous to others, and therefore they do not need urgent hospitalization in infectious department clinics or isolation from the rest of the family.
What happens after infection with psittacosis?
Thus, chlamydia overcome protective barriers and penetrated into the body through the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. After that, they quickly take root in the bronchioles and small bronchi, often reaching alevol that provokes inflammation. Reproduction pathogens occurs in the cells. If the diagnosis of psittacosis symptoms were misinterpreted and treated too late, chlamydia have time to get into the blood to cause intoxication and defeat of various organs and systems - from the adrenal glands to the central nervous system. Poisoning toxins due to the influence of both the pathogen and the products of its life.
Occasionally an infection enters the body through a skin of the digestive tract, rather than via the upper respiratory tract. In this case, the development of psittacosis occur on the scenario described above, but without the pneumonia, which is characteristic only for aerogenic infection. We also note that after previous infection are immune, but it short and unstable, so there may be cases of recurrent diseases. Help then can only integrated prevention psittacosis and regular examinations of employees of poultry farms and other enterprises working with birds.
The symptoms of psittacosis and clinical picture
The incubation period ranges from psittacosis 6 days to 2 weeks. Patients are acute and chronic diseases, with an acute form is divided into typical (pneumonia) and atypical (ornitozny meningitis, psittacosis in people without lung disease, meningopnevmoniya).
Acute psittacosis. It starts with a sharp rise in temperature (up to 39 degrees), after which patients manifest the following symptoms:
- general weakness, fatigue;
- decreased appetite;
- severe pain in the muscles of the back and limbs;
- runny nose, nasal congestion;
- dry and sore throat.
After 2-4 days the first signs of lung disease: chest pain, worse when breathing, dry cough, muco-purulent sputum. Intoxication and fever during this period or held at the initial level or increase slightly. If time is not diagnosed psittacosis in humans, treatment should be corrected to include the liver and spleen. At the end of the first week, they greatly increase in size, accompanied by vegetative-vascular disorders and fatigue, even for minor physical exertion. We also note that even after the normalization of the patient's condition, his health remains poor for a long time, due to the residual effect of toxins. Full recovery occurs only after 2-3 months after the start of treatment.
If treatment psittacosis was insufficient or nonexistent infection spills over into the chronic form. Patients psittacosis observed all the signs of bronchitis, prolonged intoxication constantly high temperature, which, however, rarely rises above 38 degrees. Chronic psittacosis can last 4-5 years and more.
Possible complications of psittacosis
The most dangerous consequences psittacosis include myocarditis, thrombophlebitis, the development of congestive heart failure and hepatitis. With the development of secondary infections in patients observed neuritis and purulent otitis. Pregnant women psittacosis often causes spontaneous abortions. Intrauterine infection occurs.
Psittacosis in humans - the treatment of the disease
In the treatment of psittacosis patients prescribed antibiotics of the tetracycline group (vibramitsin, doxycycline, tetracycline). The course of treatment lasts for 4-7 days before reducing the temperature to a normal level, and then for a further 10 days to fix results. If the patient has an individual intolerance to tetracyclines, treatment psittacosis suggests its replacement by chloramphenicol or erythromycin. They are less efficient because complete recovery patients may come much later.
Prevention psittacosis is reduced to the early detection of infection in poultry, pigeons and regulate the number of sanitary and veterinary measures at poultry farms and other businesses related to the rearing of poultry and processing of their meat. To check the imported products necessary quarantine measures. Note that the prevention of psittacosis is the only way to prevent infections, as a vaccine against this disease does not exist.