General characteristics of the disease
Pneumoconiosis - a chronic lung disease that is caused by prolonged inhalation of dust and harmful compounds. In most cases, the treatment of pneumoconiosis must be people working in hazardous occupations. Currently, doctors know 6 forms of the disease. The classification is based on the extent of pathological processes, their timing, and features of the flow, and the nature and concentration of respirable dust harmful compounds.
Sources occurrence of pneumoconiosis - is extremely diverse, but often the disease manifests itself in people whose profession is connected with the rock drilling, sifting, crushing, grinding and processing of quartz fiber materials, granite. Prevention of pneumoconiosis is needed and the workers who are engaged in electric welding, cutting metal, the surface finish. The most dangerous human fine dust particle diameter of not more than 5 microns.
Pneumoconiosis - symptoms and clinical picture
The initial stages of the disease are accompanied by the following symptoms:
- dry cough;
- severe shortness of breath;
- chest pain occurring during exercise and deep breathing;
- occurrence of opportunistic diseases, particularly deformable bronchitis.
The temperature of the human body, usually remains within normal limits, however, some kinds of pneumoconiosis may be accompanied by increased temperatures up to 38-40 degrees. At the same time, patients also note fatigue, weakness, sometimes rapid weight loss.
As the fibrotic process, the person has respiratory distress, dry and wet finely wheezing, pleural rub. In the later stages of pneumoconiosis urgent treatment is necessary because increasing respiratory failure can lead to pulmonary heart decompensation, which is often the cause of death of patients.
The treatment of pneumoconiosis
Therapeutic and prophylactic measures include quality food with high content of proteins and vitamins, competent organization of leisure, active sports, breathing exercises, smoking cessation, water treatments.
Modern fitness clubs offer you different kinds of training, tailored specifically for your level of physical fitness or the presence of certain diseases.
Because of drugs, various adaptogens. They have obschestimuliruyuschimi properties, increase non-specific reaction of the body, contribute to the rapid recovery of damaged organs. Most of the patients prescribed tincture of Eleutherococcus, Pantocrinum, niacin, vitamin B, C and P.
If the patient is not observed a pronounced respiratory insufficiency, he recommended: potassium chloride, iontophoresis with novocaine and ultrasound on the chest. All of these procedures stimulate blood and lymph circulation, significantly improves lung ventilation function. With the emergence and development of bronchitis patients were additionally prescribed expectorants and preparations, thinning mucus (alteynogo root thermopsis, iodine).
Patients with severe stage of the disease is transferred to a stationary or spa treatment of pneumoconiosis. The most widely used techniques such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and oxygen inhalation. Effective bronchodilators and drugs that lower blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation (reserpine, papaverine, aminophylline). When decompensated pulmonary heart patients prescribed diuretics and cardiac glycosides. Quite widely used corticosteroids.
Forecasts treatment and recovery depend on the stage of pneumoconiosis and the complications that often arise in the course of the disease. Unfavorable prognosis in such forms as silicosis, asbestosis and berylliosis when disease progression continuing even after the termination of harmful compounds. Other forms are characterized by benign course and prognosis.
Prevention of pneumoconiosis
The basis of preventive measures is to reduce the level of dust in the workplace, the use of personal respiratory protection against dust and periodic medical examinations. Status of the bronchial mucosa and lung can be improved by salt-alkaline solutions, mineral water or Thermo-alkaline inhalation. Pneumoconiosis Prevention also includes regular monitoring of the personnel of the enterprises and holding krupnokadrovoy fluoroscopy. Together, these measures allow time to detect the disease and take steps to prevent its further spread.