On the surface of the human body often have different portions that are different in color from the basic color of the skin. They are the accumulation of specific cells with high content of melanin - the pigment responsible for skin tone and color of the iris. Since the adoption of the Latin medical terms, such a change in the color of the skin is called nevus pigmentosa. Moles or, depending on the size, birthmarks are benign tumors, but in some cases they can acquire pathological.
Pigmented nevus, the reasons
Nevus pigmentary on human skin can occur at any age. However, most birthmarks is still "from childhood." Even in utero in the body possible violations at the cellular level. They lead to the phenomenon on the skin like a nevus pigmentosa, thus causes can be various factors. The main ones are: the hormonal changes in a woman's body during pregnancy, genetic disorders and the impact on the future mother of adverse environmental conditions.
Under the influence of these factors is disturbed development of a number of cells that lose the ability to spread the pigment. As a result of accumulation of melanin pigment and nevus is formed. Often it is so small that immediately after the child's birth is almost imperceptible. In this connection, in the newborn, usually not observed Moles which usually only become visible to three years.
Risk factors may provoke changes in the skin, not only during embryonic development, but also throughout life. This is especially noticeable during periods of hormonal fluctuations - as a teenager and during menopause, when the greatly increased number of such tumors. Pigmented nevus is also often occurs as a result of excessive exposure of the skin to ultraviolet rays. He has the ability to quickly degenerate into a malignant tumor.
Nevus pigmentary: Classification
Birthmarks are distinguished by date and place of education as well as in size. The most common are the following types of pigment nevus:
- Border. Cells with melanin in the epidermis located - the upper layer of the skin. Nevus is a small speck of brown color with a smooth surface, which is never a hair;
- Intradermally. The name indicates that the concentration of the specific cell is thicker in the middle layer of the skin - the dermis. Congenital nevi brown pigment may be placed on the skin and mucous membranes;
- Blue. Characteristic color is due to melanin deposits under the skin. The birthmark is a bundle with a smooth surface, sharply delineated from the surrounding tissue;
- Papillomatoznyh. Birthmark large enough most often appears on the scalp, it has a bumpy surface. This gives it a resemblance to the wart;
- Giant. Congenital pigmented nevi, increasing with the growth of the child reaches a considerable value. It has an uneven surface with patches of body hair.
Birthmarks can be grouped according to size: 1 to 5 cm - small, between 1 and 5 cm to 10 cm - average, from 10 cm to 20 cm - large. Giant pigmented nevi - a spot size of 20 cm. Congenital character of this and a number of other tumors can confirm the presence of cells with melanin in the subcutaneous adipose tissue.
Pigmented nevus, treatment
Such a tumor of the skin as a nevus pigmentosa, often a significant cosmetic defect. In addition, it may acquire a malignant nature. It is for these reasons that many are interested in the possibility of removing the birthmark from the skin. Pigment nevus, which treatment is usually only radical may derive various methods:
- Surgical. Using a scalpel allows you to eliminate the birthmarks of considerable size. Sometimes this requires skin grafts from other parts of the body;
- Cryosurgery. Nevus pigment is exposed to extremely low temperatures. After a short frosts, it is a crust, under which gradually begins to grow normal skin;
- Electrocoagulation. Withdrawal moles effected by heat;
- Laser therapy. Nevus pigment, whose removal is best done using a laser, located usually on the face. After this procedure virtually no complications, scars, burns or scars;
- Radiosurgical. Special device directs the flow of radiation directly to the place of accumulation of pathological cells without harming healthy surrounding tissue.
Nevus pigmentosa, the removal of which can be done the following ways, often a significant problem for the person. In most cases, modern medicine makes it possible to deal with it quickly. The choice of method the removal of birthmark is a doctor, but some skin lesions, among them the giant pigmented nevus, eliminate only surgically.
Given the ability of some types of birthmarks malignantly reborn, you must follow some precautions. First of all, not subject to change skin prolonged sun exposure, as well as to protect against mechanical impact - rubbing and scratching. If pigmented nevus is small and not a cosmetic defect, it should not be removed. In the case of increasing the birthmark or change the color you need to consult a doctor.