General characteristics of the disease
Osteochondrosis - a disease caused by the destruction of bone and cartilage tissues of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine.
In the first place with the progression of the disease mutates central part of the spinal disc - the so-called nucleus pulposus. Because of this vertebra part loses its cushioning properties, and a fibrous ring around the periphery of the disk formed of thinning or cracking.
The further progression of osteochondrosis leads to complications of the disease - bulging disc or rupture of the fibrous ring of intervertebral hernia and how her investigation. The instability of the spine in the affected area resulting in pain and limited mobility of the head with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine as well as the limited mobility of the body in osteochondrosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine.
In 75% of cases it is the cause of osteochondrosis back pain. With age, the risk of degeneration of the tissues of the spine increases significantly, so on average the symptoms of osteochondrosis occur every second inhabitant of the planet over 30 years old.
Causes of osteochondrosis
Aggravating factors in the development of osteochondrosis considered a back injury or systematic load on the back during heavy physical work or professional employment in conditions of vibration. If you have to deal with a lot of loading and unloading operations, buy tail lift for your car.
Early symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the spine caused by poor physical development, flat feet or overweight. There is also a genetic predisposition to the loose structure of the intervertebral disc structure and anomalies of the spine. Unfavorable in terms of the health of the spine are also intensive training in the gym with a violation of the rules of the load on the back, a sedentary lifestyle and poor diet.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis
The disease is manifested by a number of common symptoms. For osteoarthritis of the spine characterized by: a nagging back pain, numbness in the affected portion of the spine, reducing the range of motion, increased pain when lifting weight, sudden movement, tension during coughing or sneezing.
Chronic pain is one of the symptoms of osteochondrosis, causes fatigue. When squeezing the nerve roots of the spine disc pain may be more intense and wearing a sharp, "sweep" character. Its localization in this case is not limited to the back, and there is a person in the area of the limbs.
Stages of osteochondrosis
From the symptoms of osteochondrosis dependent stage of the disease. In the first stage of osteochondrosis pain hardly felt if only slight discomfort and poor stability of the spine injury. The destruction of the fibrous ring, reducing the size of vertebrate slots and pain of varying intensity - a symptom of osteochondrosis of the second stage.
The third stage of the disease is characterized by significant deformation of bone and vertebral tissue until the appearance of the intervertebral hernia. A symptom of osteochondrosis the heaviest fourth stage are massive bony growths, limited mobility, intense pain, as well as a complete or partial paralysis of the limbs caused by compression of the nerve roots.
Symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine often leads to impaired blood circulation due to compression of the arteries. This leads to intense headaches, dizziness and fainting. When osteochondrosis of the cervical spine is sometimes observed vertebral artery syndrome. It is characterized by a sense of the noise in my head, flashing "flies" or colored spots before his eyes. When osteochondrosis of the cervical spine are also possible peripheral pain in the arms or hands.
Symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the thoracic spine
Osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine can worsen during various cardiac pathologies. The disease causes a progression of intercostal neuralgia (intercostal nerve compression). When osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine there are chest pain and a feeling of "stake" in the center of the chest.
Symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine leads to the development of the following diseases: sciatica, lumbago and so-called lumbar radiculitis.
Sciatica is one of the complications of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine, characterized by lesions of the sciatic nerve, pain in the gluteal region, hypotension (low tone) of the calf and buttock muscles.
When lumbago symptom of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine acts as a sharp pain in the lower back caused by the displacement of the vertebrae, or vertebral disc prolapse.
Lumbar sciatica, another complication of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine, provoked hernias lowest discs of the spine. It is accompanied by pain in the buttocks radiating to the back of the thigh, popliteal fossa, shin and foot.
Diagnosis of osteochondrosis
The preliminary diagnosis "osteochondrosis" establishes neurologist after the initial examination due to the patient's complaints of back pain and limited mobility. Stage of osteochondrosis is stated depending on the degree of deformation of the spine, posture state of the patient and the amount of damaged discs.
All of the above symptoms of osteochondrosis diagnosed by feeling the back of the patient. The doctor also draws attention to the state of muscle tone. Since in most cases the disease is accompanied by hypertonic muscles.
With tests on bending of the spine is determined by the amplitude of movements of the patient. Through the use of X-rays, CT and MRI diagnosis is specified and determine the future tactics of treatment of spinal osteochondrosis.
Treatment of osteochondrosis
In the treatment of degenerative disc disease of the spine applied conservative and surgical techniques. The goal of both - to eliminate pain and prevent further progression of the spinal deformity.
This surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease of the spine is used only if the conservative therapy of the disease is ineffective.
The active phase of the application of conservative methods lasts an average of 2 months. In the beginning it is possible to gain a short-term pain caused by a reaction to medication, physiotherapy (physical therapy) and physiotherapy. In the conservative treatment of osteoarthritis of the spine are also used massage, chiropractic, extract and reflexology. The effectiveness of the treatment of degenerative disc disease of the spine depends on the system procedures and persistence of the patient in the implementation of complex LFK.
Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease of the spine is held with a herniated disc, whose antiquity exceeds 6 months. Indications for surgery is also a reduction in the gap between the vertebrae to 1/3 its original size and compression of the spinal cord.
The leading method of surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease of the spine - discectomy, ie removal of damaged discs. Minimally invasive surgery can be conducted with the help of endoscopic instruments by microdiscectomy, B-Twin system, as well as puncture laser vaporization nucleus deformed disc.
After surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease of the spine rehabilitation period is expected within 6 months. During a patient is referred to a spa treatment for a course of physiotherapy, manual therapy, acupuncture, etc.