Nosebleeds (medical term - epistaxis, from the Latin epistaxis) experts do not consider the category of independent diseases. The root cause of epistaxis, usually a primary disease, traumatic damage or allergic nose and sinuses. Sometimes, for example, after heavy physical exertion or extreme fatigue nose bleeding can occur in healthy humans. In this case, aid for epistaxis is not required, because in the short term flow of blood from the nasal passages terminated independently.
It is also classified as non-hazardous conditions include nosebleeds, the causes of which lie in a fairly long stay in the cold or in the dry, hot climate. Being in these conditions leads to excessive dehydration and drying of the mucous membranes of the nasal passages and as a consequence becomes a cause discontinuities of small blood vessels.
Causes of nosebleeds
Natural causes nasal bleeding in adult healthy person can be in excessive overheating of the body (exposure to sun or heat stroke). Nosebleeds, resulting from overheating, usually associated with dizziness, severe weakness, tinnitus, and fainting.
Nosebleeds, the causes of which are traumatic in nature (blows, bruises, falls, etc.) are combined with a pronounced swelling of the injured area, and a sharp soreness surrounding tissue. If there is a fracture of the facial bones or cartilage, visually noticeable distortion. If you are interested in plastic surgery of the nose of the forum will give you the opportunity to discuss issues of rhinoplasty.
Causes of epistaxis, consisting in inflammatory processes in the nasal passages and adjacent sinuses (sinusitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, etc.), Usually accompanied by bloody mucous discharge with clots from the nasal passages, sometimes, fever.
If nasal bleeding occurred in a person suffering from chronic hypertension, more often this symptom indicates hypertensive crisis - a sharp rise in blood pressure that occurs as a result of ruptures the walls of tiny blood vessels in the nose.
Reasons nasalbleedings can serve taking certain medications, particularly nasal sprays, anti-allergy (antihistamine), corticosteroids, anti-clotting drugs (aspirin, heparin, etc.).
In addition to the above reasons, nosebleeds that occur often enough, can testify to the reduced level of production of platelets in the body (the so-called thrombocytopenic purpura), and the possible presence of such terrible diseases such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
Frequent nosebleeds may be the only sign of beginning a benign or malignant tumor in the nasal passage.
Types of nosebleeds
Features of the respiratory system at an early age stipulate that nosebleeds in children are not always caused by any pathological conditions. Most often nosebleeds in children can be caused by damage to the mucous membrane of the nasal passages by mechanical means - fingers, nasal administration of small foreign bodies, traumatic injuries of the nose during the fall, injury and so on. D.
If a child while bleeding from the nose with thick mucus bloody clots, it is likely he runs inflammation in the nasal (rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.), And requires appropriate treatment.
Long nosebleeds in children, there is a constant and combined with the occurrence of hematomas and bruises, may indicate a violation of the processes of blood clotting disorder or hemophilia.
- Nosebleeds in pregnant women.
Nosebleeds during pregnancy is quite common. This fact is explained by the fact that in the body of the pregnant woman is often observed a significant lack of vitamin K - an indispensable participant in the process of blood clotting. Lack of vitamin K is the cause not only of frequent nosebleeds, but increased bleeding gums, as well as the appearance of multiple bruises in women during pregnancy.
If nosebleeds in a pregnant woman is accompanied by a severe headache or dizziness, perhaps this situation is associated with high blood pressure (which often occurs during pregnancy) and then you need an urgent appeal to the leading pregnancy gynecologist.
Provision of medical care and treatment of epistaxis in a health institution requires the following complicated cases:
- Copious nosebleeds in children with suspected foreign body in the nasal passages;
- Nosebleeds arose as a result of injury, and combined with swelling and deformation changes in the nose;
- Nosebleeds occurred in a patient with a diagnosis of "chronic hypertension" in the background jump in blood pressure;
- Frequent and copious nosebleeds, combined with the formation of numerous bruises and hematomas, bleeding gums and other symptoms of dysfunction of blood coagulation;
- Nosebleeds any cause, it does not stop when making independent measures to stop for a time greater than 30 minutes.
In the hospital to address ongoing epistaxis use the following manipulations:
- Swabbing of the nasal passages, comprising administering gauze (greased special hemostatic paste or jelly) in nasal swabs. Tamponade can be made both by the oral (rear), and from the nasal passages (front).
- Operational stop nasal bleeding is shown in those cases when other measures have been tried ineffective.
Individual nosebleeds do not require treatment. Particular attention should be paid to the state of his health, if nosebleeds repeated often enough (for no apparent reason, he explains). In this case, the best option would be an appeal to the physician to determine the exact causes of nosebleeds.