Brief description of the disease
Neutropenia - a disease that is characterized by a reduced content of neutrophils in the blood.
Neutrophils - a blood cell maturation in the bone marrow occurs within two weeks. After entering the bloodstream neutrophils searching and destroy foreign agents. In other words, neutrophils - a kind of army of defense against bacteria. Lowering these protective cells leads to increased susceptibility to various infections.
Neutropenia in children older than one year and adults is characterized by a decrease in neutrophils below 1500 levels by 1 l. Neutropenia in children under one year is characterized by a decrease in the level of neutrophils less than 1000 in 1 ml of blood.
Children of the first year of life often suffer from chronic benign neutropenia. For this disease is characterized by cyclical, that is, the level of neutrophils varies at different times: the falls to a very low point, then it rises to the desired level. Chronic benign neutropenia goes away on its own in 2-3 years.
Causes of neutropenia
The causes of the disease - quite diverse. These include a variety of viral and bacterial infections, the negative impact on the body of some medicines, aplastic anemia, severe inflammatory diseases, the effect of chemotherapy.
In some cases you can not determine the cause of neutropenia, ie, the disease develops as a distinct pathology.
The degree and form of neutropenia
There are three degrees of the disease:
- Is characterized by mild to 1000 neutrophils per l;
- Average degree presupposes levels from 500 to 1000 neutrophils per ml of blood;
- Severe degree is characterized by the presence in the blood of less than 500 neutrophils per ml.
Also, the disease can be acute or chronic. The acute form is characterized by the rapid development of the disease, a chronic form may occur over several years.
Symptoms of neutropenia
Symptoms depend on the manifestations of infection or illness that develops against the backdrop of neutropenia. Form of neutropenia, the duration and the reason that it originated, has a definite influence on the severity of the infection.
If the immune system is affected, then the body is attacked by various viruses and bacteria. In this case, neutropenia symptoms are sores on the mucous membranes, fever, pneumonia. In the absence of proper treatment may develop toxic shock.
The chronic form has a more favorable prognosis.
By reducing the level of neutrophils lower than 500 per 1 ml of blood develops a rather dangerous form of the disease, known as febrile neutropenia. It is characterized by severe weakness, sweating, sharp temperature rise above 38˚S, tremor, disturbance of the normal heart function. Such a condition is difficult to diagnose because similar symptoms are observed in the development of pneumonia or bacterial infection of the blood.
Treatment of neutropenia
Treatment of the disease depends on the reason for which it originated. Therefore, treat the infection, which led to the development of neutropenia. Depending on the severity and form of the disease, the doctor makes a decision on the treatment of neutropenia in a hospital or at home. The focus is on strengthening the immune system.
Of drugs used antibiotics, vitamins, medicines for immunity. In very severe the patient is placed in an isolated room where sterility is maintained and carried out ultraviolet irradiation.