General characteristics of the disease
The term "neurosis" is used to refer to the whole group of neuropsychiatric disorders with common characteristics. Such is considered compulsive, hysterical attacks or autonomic (functional) disorders in the organs.
For the first time on the neuroses of children and adults in the medical community spoke on the initiative of the Scottish doctor Cullen in 1776. Since then, the relevance of the discussions on the classification and diagnosis of the disease did not decrease. In domestic medicine, for example, long non-existent, as such, the term "neurosis" to refer to an independent disease. Today, there are often other extreme, when, instead of the term "neurosis" is used several names neurotic, stress-related disorders.
Neurosis - symptoms and types of diseases
Difficulties with the establishment of a common classification of diseases are caused by a huge number of different symptoms of neurosis. Neurotic reactions of each individual person deeply and often depend on the situation that caused the patient inner conflict, failure to take a decision or a fear of certain future events. A simplified classification of the neuroses of symptoms of neurological disorders implies the existence of at least three varieties of the disease: obsessive-compulsive disorder, neurasthenia, hysterical neurosis (the most common type of neurosis in children).
Obsessive-compulsive disorder, also known as obsessional neurosis, is expressed in the patient's overwhelming desire to perform certain actions or inexplicable fear of repeating the specific situations in his life. The patient keeps a critical attitude to reality, aware of his wrong behavior and because of this experience a sense of alienation. The symptoms of obsessional neurosis can be of different kinds: from uncontrollable habit of counting the steps to the unfolding of non-existent wrinkles in clothes or desire several times to go home to check off whether iron.
Different kinds of phobias (fear of enclosed spaces or open spaces, fear of contracting, going mad or dying of some illness) - all this is also the variety of neurosis in children and adults. Another symptom of this type of neurosis - formation in patients rituals, for example, the habit of coming back home only certain route, etc. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can develop in human years. The patient is gradually adapting to their phobias and tries to avoid situations that cause him unmotivated fear.
The disease is often called the asthenic neurosis. For patients characterized by complaints of fatigue, inability to concentrate, feeling of weakness, apathy. This reduced efficiency and lethargy observed against the background of excessive emotional excitability. Patients suffering from neurasthenia, usually hot-tempered, are in a constant state of tension, and the slightest external stimuli can cause a strong reaction from them. Other characteristic symptoms of neurosis, asthenic type - sleep disorders, headaches, functional failures in the gastrointestinal, reproductive and cardiovascular systems.
This type of disease is accompanied by various autonomic, motor and sensory disorders. The patient can not fully control his body and makes involuntary movements. In contrast to patients with various types of psychosis, a person with symptoms of neurosis hysterical type his motor reactions cause discomfort, but to confront them, he is unable to.
Very often, patients with hysterical neurosis complain of headaches, contracting like a hoop, whiskey patient. Other symptoms of this kind of neurosis - tremor (twitching) limbs, head, eyelids, tremors, partial or complete loss of sensation, psychogenic pain. A variation of the disease, many researchers believe certain types of anorexia, enuresis and stuttering. Children neurosis hysterical type is often manifested in the form of habit twisting his lips, tilting your head, pull out the hair, eyelashes, or comb the skin to the blood.
Neuroses - Treatment and prognosis
Treatment of the disease - specialization neurologist and psychotherapist. Medical treatment principle of neurosis is to appoint a benzodiazepine tranquilizers. Psychoactive substance of these drugs cause drowsiness in the patient, reduce anxiety, have anticonvulsant effect. Unfortunately, this group of tranquilizers exists a considerable list of side effects. When medication neurosis often experience nausea, itching, constipation, decreased sexual function. As a result of 3-4 months of regular reception of tranquilizers can be formed depending on the counter medicines.
As part of an integrated treatment of neuroses of various etiologies are also nootropics, psychostimulants, antidepressants, vitamins and minerals, physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise. In addition, patients received psychotherapy, including individual interviews, hypnosis, group and family counseling and art therapy. The problem of non-drug treatment of neurosis is to change the attitude of the patient to the problem situation. Neurological disorders are generally reversible. And timely access to a doctor to avoid protracted treatment of neurosis.
Treatment of the neuroses in children
A separate diagnosis of the disease and "children's neurosis" in medicine does not exist. Neuroses in children as well as adults - a mental disorder is reversible. The cause of childhood neuroses are most often the problems within the family: the parents scandals, conflicts in kindergarten or school, weathered a strong fear, etc. As a reaction to the trauma gradually develops children's neurosis, the cause of which can often be installed by a qualified therapist.
Drug therapy of childhood neuroses is quite rare. One sedatives given problem can not be solved, and many drugs for the treatment of neurosis in adults contraindicated in children because of their young age. When neuroses in children is commonly used art therapy: drawing, modeling, designing, dancing. But their effectiveness depends on how the parents will be able to change the life circumstances that caused the child neurotic reaction, grew into childhood neuroses.