Miliary tuberculosis is an acute disease that occurs with the formation of tubercles in several organs. basically,
TB spreads the specific agent.
Causes and symptoms of miliary tuberculosis
Miliary tuberculosis can be both acute and chronic. Acute miliary tuberculosis is a disease like typhoid and flows in severe form. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease of the wave-like nature with periods of exacerbation and reduce symptoms.
In adult patients, miliary tuberculosis is a consequence of infection or old blood reactivation. In children, the disease is a consequence of primary TB.
A serious threat to the life of the patient miliary tuberculosis is the penetration of bacteria into the bloodstream.
In this form of TB is formed a lot of damage to respiratory and other organs. The main causative agent of the disease is a mycobacterial infection which is carried by airborne droplets.
A feature of miliary tuberculosis is the spread of the pathogen and the development of foci of inflammation in multiple organs. Against the backdrop of the disease reduced the protective functions of the body.
The main symptoms of miliary tuberculosis are weight loss, sudden onset of fever, weakness, malaise, shortness of breath and cough, chills. In the severe stages of flow changes the stem cells of the brain, and may cause leukemia.
Continuous release of bacteria into the bloodstream causes fever and exhaustion.
Miliary tuberculosis forms lesions in the lungs, spleen, intestine, liver and meninges. Sometimes, the disease affects only the lungs, but it is often the presence of acute tuberculosis genesis hematogenous type.
Miliary tuberculosis can be divided into several types:
- typhoid type of fever and intoxication of the body;
- type with symptoms of pulmonary respiratory failure;
- meningeal type with the presence of small foci of proliferation in the brain.
Diagnosis of the disease
Miliary tuberculosis can be diagnosed on radiographs and CT scan. On chest X-ray
cells show multiple foci of inflammation and lung disease, as well as lesions in other organs.
Analysis of sputum and blood can detect the presence of mycobacteria. Often patients Mantoux test for a negative result.
In order to establish an accurate diagnosis appoint ophthalmoscopy, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, a biopsy of the lungs and other organs, bone marrow puncture.
Treatment of miliary tuberculosis
The main miliary tuberculosis treatment lasts 10 to 12 months. Drug therapy includes anti-bacterial drugs such as 3-5, as well as immune-boosting drugs, procedures, physiotherapy and breathing exercises.
In the severe stage of the disease in accordance with the diagnostic indications of the patient lung resection.
As adjunctive therapy is prescribed a clear regime of work and rest, balanced diet, vitamin therapy, phototherapy and climatotherapy.
Often, to strengthen the body in miliary tuberculosis prescribe vitamin D, regular intake of dairy products and products with calcium.
If vitamin therapy does not give the desired therapeutic effect, prescribe miliary tuberculosis with streptomycin. Also, if necessary, a removal of foci of disease in lyupoznyh miliary tuberculosis skin type.