General characteristics of the disease
Mental retardation - a congenital or acquired at an early age dementia. It is expressed in the general underdevelopment of the mind and primarily affects the human intellect. The term "mental retardation" is derived from two Greek words «oligos» (small) and «phrēn» (mind), although it is more correct to consider the expression "mental delay" or "mental deficiency". In common parlance mental retardation in children is often called mental retardation, and very child with mental retardation - backward.
Mental retardation as a separate disease, was classified only in the beginning of the last century. Until that time, the general collective term "dementia" as a united patients with congenital disease, and acquired a mental underdevelopment, such as senile dementia.
Causes of mental retardation
There are three groups of factors that provoke the development of disease:
The first set of reasons for mental retardation is the endogenous (internal) character. This includes all types of mental underdevelopment caused by chromosomal abnormalities, genetic syndromes and a variety of specific inherited metabolic disorders. The cause of mental retardation of this type can serve as Klinefelter syndrome, Turner's, Rubinstein - Teybi, Down syndrome, various types of mucopolysaccharidosis and other metabolic diseases.
The second set of reasons for mental retardation account for exogenous factors, ie, external etiology. In this case, the total mental underdevelopment of the patient may cause intrauterine infection during pregnancy, blood immunokonflikt mom and baby, childbirth and post-partum trauma skull baby, the mother alcoholism, drug addiction and other addictions, provoked serious disturbances in the supply of nutrients to the fetus.
The complex causes of mental retardation mixed etiology includes factors such as exogenous and endogenous nature. As a result of the cumulative effects on the human body of several adverse factors develops the most severe forms of mental retardation.
Forms of mental retardation
Each complex causes of mental retardation corresponds to a separate form of the disease. In total to date to distinguish between four forms of mental retardation:
I form of mental retardation - a hereditary variant of the disease caused by defective generative cells of the patient's parents. By form I include mental retardation in patients with Down syndrome, microcephaly and mental underdevelopment on the background of serious lesions of the skin and bones of man.
II form of mental retardation - different kinds of embryos and fetopathy. By form of mental retardation II rank types of mental underdevelopment caused by prenatal factors, viral, bacterial or parasitic infections during pregnancy, hemolytic disease of the fetus.
III form of mental retardation - mental retardation in children, provoked by birth trauma, hypoxia or asphyxia during labor, and moved to the age of 3 years, encephalitis, meningitis, or a serious head injury.
The final form of mental retardation VI - type of mental underdevelopment caused by the progression of the underlying congenital diseases, such as various defects of the brain or endocrine disorders.
Degrees of mental retardation
Depending on the severity of mental defect and IQ patient distinguish 3 degrees of mental retardation:
An easy mental retardation called debility. In patients with this degree of mental retardation IQ is in the redistribution of 50-70 balls. Patients who have developed quite a speech, can make simple arithmetic operations (add up, subtract, count money). Their range of interests is limited to domestic issues. By teaching patients with mild mental retardation show no interest and demonstrate complete inability to think abstractly. They are able to learn the rules of social behavior and skills of monotonous primitive manual labor.
Imbecile - the degree of mental retardation with moderate intellectual underdevelopment. IQ of people from 20 to 49 points. Patients with this degree of mental retardation tongue-tied. Their vocabulary consists of a few dozen words. With this degree of mental retardation in humans retained the ability to self-service, but the most primitive to perform production work sick often can not.
Idiocy - the degree of mental retardation with the most severe mental retardation. Patients in this group have the IQ of less than 20 points. Thinking in deep degree of mental retardation virtually undeveloped. Patients with poorly understood converts it to them. Their communication with others is limited manifestation of emotions of pleasure or displeasure. The skills of self-service patients are missing, and they are totally dependent on carers.
Diagnosis of mental retardation
Some forms of mental retardation caused by genetic factors, can now be diagnosed at a stage of fetal development. In that case addressed the issue of the possibility of abortion.
Mental retardation in infants are diagnosed on the basis of a whole range of symptoms of physical and mental underdevelopment. Mental retardation in children from an early age is reflected in the inability of the child up to a year to keep your head, sit, stare at one point, turning his head toward the sound, to smile or to gulit converts it to him.
Mental retardation in children the second year of life is manifested in the lack of desire to know the environment, underdevelopment of speech and motor skills. The child does not understand the converts to it, and it does not try to imitate the actions of adults. At a very early age are diagnosed, usually the most severe degree of mental retardation.
In the preschool period, the degree of light mental retardation in children is expressed in the poorly developed speech, the predominance of primitive emotions, poor learning ability and inability to self-service.
Treatment of mental retardation
To identify the various forms of mental retardation in children around the world, there is patronage system of control of physical and mental development of children from birth to determine its school. Unfortunately, the treatment of the disease is only possible in children with mental retardation metabolic etiology. In this case, the child prescribers for correction of metabolic and further development of the disease depends on the susceptibility of the child's body to the treatment.
For all other forms of mental retardation in children can be carried out only supportive therapy vitamin complexes, amino acids, nootropics, drugs to stimulate cerebral circulation and reduce intracranial pressure.
The diagnosis of "mental retardation" in children involves the child in a social rehabilitation program. When mild to moderate mental retardation, patients are sent to specialized kindergartens and boarding schools. There they receive education at about 4 regular school classes, while studying a profession. After graduating from the boarding school, most graduates independently employed. In all forms of mental retardation is made disability and patients appointed by the allowance.