Mental development is a mental state characterized by a slow pace of formation of personality and mental functions, as well as disturbances in mental and cognitive abilities.
Symptoms and causes of mental development
Mental development occur most commonly in infancy and childhood. These psychological disorders are associated with a variety of factors, injuries and abnormalities.
The main causes of mental development are:
- hereditary disease of the brain;
- chromosomal diseases;
- malformations of the brain;
- epileptic syndrome;
- lesions and diseases of the central nervous system;
- brain tumor;
- severe diseases of the nervous system, and neurocutaneous syndromes;
- hereditary endocrine diseases;
- Somatic disease;
- disorders and diseases of the sense organs;
- lack of education and pedagogical neglect.
Mental development in children manifest in the form of underdevelopment, damage of personal development and a lack of self-determination, inability to mental retardation and problems with cognition, psychopathy and distortion (autism).
The most important causes of mental development disorders are hereditary, biological, social and psychogenic factors.
Mental development of children are expressed in a significant lag in the development of their peers, slowing of mental formation, inconsistencies in behavior and perception with age norms. These disorders begin to manifest themselves at an early age, and they are often associated with brain dysfunction.
In determining the causes of mental development of the child must take into account the temperament, the presence of somatic and cerebral pathologies, the emotional state and deprivation.
For biological reasons, violations include pathology during pregnancy, prematurity, birth and post-partum trauma, physical illness and injuries.
Mental development can be caused by social factors, including the lack of attention and a separation from the mother, social isolation, lack of education, training and development of unfavorable conditions in the family and society.
Types of mental development
Mental development is classified into several types.
The main types of mental development are:
- dizontogeneza, including damaged, delayed, and distorted development;
- irreversible mental underdevelopment;
- disharmonious mental development;
- degenerative mental development related to epilepsy and other diseases;
- abnormal mental development, caused by mental and physical abnormalities.
Also highlights the types of mental development of schizophrenic process: Asynchronous, retardation and mental retardation.
In some cases, the clinical forms of violations occur, including acceleration, infantilism, autism and somatopatiya.
Separately isolated medicine mental development disorders associated with mental retardation view - uncomplicated, neurodynamic, analyzer and psychopathic form.
Prevention of mental development
Of particular importance in preventing the development of mental disorders performs comprehensive system of preventive measures. Prevention of mental disorders should begin to conduct a regular inspection and consultation to the pediatrician, as well as verification of psychomotor reactions in children.
Status of mental development must determine a speech therapist, child psychologist, pediatrician and pathologist. Accurate diagnosis of the child and the type of mental development can be determined using a diagnostic survey.
Prevention of mental development based on the use of special medical, educational, psychological and social methods to verify the child. To create the right environment for the mental development of a favorable correction used space in which the child develops cognitive function, logical thinking and acquiring academic skills.
An important factor in prevention is to comply with the safety and conduct of medical and educational guidance in the first months of pregnancy.
After giving birth and during the first year of his life can be revealed early signs of mental disorders. Lack of response to sound and light may be the first signs of such violations.
Children of preschool age mental development disorders often manifest themselves as problems with speech and writing, the lag in motor development and poor memory.
To conduct effective prevention of mental development necessary to eliminate conflicts in the family, to avoid the physical and psychological trauma during pregnancy, and should create a favorable environment for the development of the child.
Treatment of mental development
The treatment of disorders of mental development are engaged pediatricians, psychologists, neurologists, speech therapists, psychiatrists and speech pathologists. Therapy should be directed to the harmonious interaction of these professionals and their practices.
To assign the exact type of treatment is necessary to establish the causes of the violations and their type. The primary goal of treatment is long-term correction of child development.
The structure of drug therapy should include the following drugs: nootropics, vascular and anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting. As a supplement prescribed vitamin therapy.
When mental designate certain types of rehabilitation. These include:
- correction of a psychological nature, including sessions with defectology and psychology aimed at restoring cognitive function, speech and memory, emotional perception, communication and social adaptation;
- correction such as speech therapy, including sessions with a speech therapist, aimed at creating the proper speech and sound formation, elimination of defects pronunciation runningaway skills and abilities for the content of speech;
- sensory exercises with a psychologist to restore sensitivity, improving perception and psychological relief;
- hardware exercises with biofeedback aimed at training of attention and memory, regulation of the child's own perception;
- relaxation exercises;
- physical therapy and exercises to promote physical and mental development;
- physical therapy, including heat, water and electric procedures.
An important step in the treatment of disorders of psychological development is the individual training and development program for the child. This program should be developed by teachers and psychologists, and it should include specific intellectual exercise, art jobs, music and dance classes.