General information about the disease
Malaria, also known to us under the name of "swamp fever" - an acute infectious disease that is transmitted by mosquito bites of the genus Anopheles. Malaria is common in areas with warm and humid climate, where the average annual temperature does not fall below 16 degrees C. In temperate zones, malaria is extremely rare, and in the polar regions have been identified no cases of infection.
When the diagnosis of malaria symptoms indicate CNS. Patients observed bouts of chills, perspiration and high body temperature. If untreated, the disease progresses rapidly and is often fatal. The danger of this infection says at least the fact that it is the leading cause of death of the working population in tropical and subtropical climates.
At the moment, the cases of malaria are regularly celebrated in Mexico, the Amazon, in many parts of Africa, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, India and Southeast Asia. In Eastern Europe, the malaria parasite has been found in the Ukraine and the Balkans.
What causes malaria?
Malaria is beginning to develop as a result of the activities of the smallest organisms - parasites. On most continents, there are three types of these parasites - Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum and P. Malariae. The fourth type - P. Ovale - was found only in Africa, and even then not in all regions. Malaria affects not only humans, but also monkeys, reptiles, and birds. From animals to humans the disease is not passed, however, isolated cases have been recorded when the body of a human infection gets in contacts with sick monkeys.
How is malaria?
Malaria enters the body through the bite of a carrier - the mosquito Anopheles. It damages the skin and injects the plasmodium in the blood. Further, parasites travel to the liver, affect red blood cells and vital systems. When an infected mosquito bites a human again, a part of the plasmid move into the body of the new media. It thus repeated complex life cycle of these creatures.
Malaria - symptoms
The characteristic symptoms of malaria are acute febrile seizures. They occur within a few days, then replaced by a period afebrile. If treatment is not carried out, or malaria were not enough, in the next two or three months, the fever may occur again.
The first symptoms of malaria are found in 2-6 weeks after infection. Patients complain of:
- violations of the chair;
- severe sweating;
For symptoms characteristic of malaria cyclical attacks. Chills replaced by heat, and then comes the stage sweating, which is again replaced by chills. Cold feel sick from 10 minutes to 2-3 hours. During this period, their skin pale, covered with rough and becomes cyanotic shade. Sometimes malaria is accompanied by severe vomiting and delirium. During the heat of the skin becomes dry and hot. In addition, patients have tachycardia and high body temperature (up to 40 degrees or higher). A few hours later the heat is replaced by sweating and temperature drop to normal values. Well-being stabilized, but remains a common weakness that persists until the next wave of attacks.
Treatment of malaria
In modern medicine, used various drugs, which can reduce the severity of symptoms or immediately kill malaria parasites. If the correct treatment of malaria assigned not present any particular risk. The only problem is that in developing countries receive adequate medical care is extremely difficult, and often the patient is doomed to regular bouts of fever that end an agonizing death.
Persons who intend to travel to endemic areas, it is recommended to regularly take anti-malarial drugs: quinine, mefloquine, chloroquine, quinacrine or atabrin. If, however, the disease has penetrated the body, it is necessary to arrest the acute effects via gematotsidov. After the treatment the patient is assigned to primaquine - shizontotsid tissue. Where malaria is a mild current, are the drugs of choice halofantrine, mefloquine and Fansidar.
Prevention of Malaria
All people traveling to Latin America, Southeast Asia or Africa, are required to attend a course of chemoprophylaxis of malaria, in which drugs are used delagil, proguanil and mefloquine. Of great importance is personal and non-specific malaria prevention, including:
- using repellents;
- installation in windows and doorways of special mosquito nets;
- the use of electric fumigators
In endemic areas, people should be closed as much as possible light-colored clothes. In the open areas of the body are put repellent. Prevent the spread of infection, and such complex measures as vector control, timely detection of parasite carriers, chemoprophylaxis.