Brief description of the disease
Lymphocytic leukemia - a malignancy of lymphoid cells.
There are acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia affects mainly children 2-4let, characterized by increased growth of immature lymphatic cells in the thymus and bone marrow.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia - a disease in which the affected tumor cells found in the blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and other organs. It differs from acute chronic stage that the tumor develops slowly and disturbance of blood formation visible only in the later stages of the disease.
Prediction lymphocytic leukemia in chronic phase is considerably better than in acute its course. The chronic form is prolonged and slow, often leads to recovery treatment. The acute form without timely treatment in most cases leads to death.
Forecast lymphocytic leukemia in the acute stage without treatment - people live no more than 4 months, if the patient has undergone treatment, the lifetime can be extended for several years, after which the treatment is sometimes advisable to repeat.
The causes of the disease
Lymphocytic leukemia occurs because of a bad heredity, exposure to ionizing radiation, carcinogenic substances. The disease can occur as a complication of treatment of other type of cancer cytostatics and other drugs, oppressive blood.
Symptoms lymphocytic leukemia
Symptoms of acute lymphocytic leukemia in the steps of: pale skin, spontaneous bleeding, fever, pain in the joints and bones. If affects the central nervous system, the patient is irritable, he suffers from headaches and vomiting.
In the chronic stage of the disease characteristic symptoms of lymphocytic leukemia - a weakness, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, especially in the right upper quadrant (because of an enlarged spleen), increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, swollen lymph nodes, sweating, weight reduction.
Diagnosis of the disease
To determine the acute stage of the disease, taking into account the external symptoms of lymphocytic leukemia, examine the peripheral blood. To confirm the preliminary diagnosis, examine bone marrow blasts. After the cytochemical, histological, cytogenetic studies of bone marrow for treatment planning lymphocytic leukemia conduct additional survey at the urologist, neurologist, otolaryngologist, do MRI, CT, ultrasound peritoneum.
Diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia begins with a physical examination and clinical analysis of blood. Then also examine bone marrow biopsy of lymph nodes, conduct cytogenetic analysis of tumor cells, determine the level of immunoglobulin to calculate the risk of patient complications such as infections.
Treatment lymphocytic leukemia
Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia stage begins with the appointment of medicines that suppress the growth of tumors in the bone marrow and blood. In cases where the tumor was struck by the nervous system and the lining of the brain, cranial irradiation is additionally carried out.
For the treatment of lymphatic leukemia in chronic phase developed several methods: receiving chemotherapy with purine analogues such as drug Fludara, bioimmunoterapiyu - administered monoclonal antibodies that destroy only the cancer cells without hurting undamaged tissue.
If these methods were ineffective patient administered vysokodozirovannuyu chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.
If you found a big tumor mass, as an additional treatment prescribed radiation therapy.
When lymphocytic leukemia can be increased spleen, so when a significant change of the body shows its removal.
Prevention of illness
To prevent the disease is necessary to limit the impact of factors causing lymphocytic leukemia: chemicals and carcinogens, ultraviolet irradiation.
Great value for a good prognosis lymphocytic leukemia is the prevention of its recurrence.
Lymphocytic leukemia being treated is recommended to use protein-rich food, drink vyskokaloriynye drinks regularly donate blood for research, strictly follow the therapeutic scheme, in time to inform the attending physician of the enlarged lymph nodes in the groin, armpits, on the neck of abdominal discomfort - so you can detect the recurrence disease should not take aspirin and other drugs containing it - can open bleeding. You should also avoid contact with infected presumably common infections in human beings, as during radiation therapy, chemotherapy, the body is weakened.
In some cases, patients for the prevention of infections after treatment of lymphocytic leukemia prescribe antivirals and antibiotics.