General characteristics of the disease
Currently, lung cancer is ahead of all other cancers in the number of confirmed diagnoses. Men tumor affects 7-10 times more often than women, due to the stronger sex addiction to smoking and more hazardous working conditions traditionally "male" occupations. Note also that lung cancer, the symptoms of which can appear at any age, though most common in people older than 60 years.
Factors that contribute to the disease
Smoking - the main cause of lung cancer. Tobacco smoke contains a large quantity of carcinogens, which disrupt the structure of bronchial epithelium, influence the normal functioning of the respiratory system and, ultimately, lead to the appearance of malignancies. About undoubted dangers of smoking is proved by the fact that the tobacco lovers die of lung cancer is much more common than the adherents of a healthy lifestyle. If you still can not give up cigarettes, choose products of famous brands. They use expensive varieties of tobacco and always supply the high-quality filter cigarettes. And one important addition: the treatment of lung cancer may require not only the smoker but also the people who surround him, because tobacco smoke is harmful, even if you do not inhale a cigarette, and just inhale it.
Poor environment - another important factor contributing to the emergence and development of disease. Symptoms of lung cancer often occur in people living in large metropolitan areas. It has the value of the profession and human rights. It is noticed that arsenic, asbestos dust, nickel and chromium provoke the appearance of cancer cells and other inflammatory processes. It is especially characteristic for people whose bronchi and lungs have suffered from serious diseases such as tuberculosis or pulmonary fibrosis.
Lung cancer - symptoms
Diagnosis of lung cancer very difficult due to the fact that most people have the early stages of the disease do not have any pronounced symptoms. Suffice it to say that currently only 15% of cases the disease is diagnosed in time, and the doctors can take steps to prevent the spread of the tumor. But even in these early cases, tumors were found after radiography, computed tomography and other methods appointed entirely different matter. This is a very disturbing fact, clearly demonstrates how dangerous lung cancer. Metastases arise when they have to deal with extremely difficult and is largely due to the number of deaths related to the development of tumors in the human lung.
We recommend that you contact a doctor immediately if the following symptoms:
- constant pain in the chest, worse during exercise and deep breathing;
- persistent cough, not extending over time;
- poor appetite and drastic weight loss;
- shortness of breath;
- before suffering a relapse of bronchitis or pneumonia.
Also, lung cancer, metastases that will eventually appear in other organs manifests itself:
- bone pain;
- weakness and numbness of the hands or feet, fatigue;
- change eye color, and skin.
Stage Lung Cancer
Treatment for lung cancer depends on the extent of spread of the organism and its severity. Stage of the disease is assessed based on the size of the tumor, the presence or absence of metastases, comorbidities and other factors. Staging of lung cancer is essential for the selection of optimal methods of treatment and recovery forecasts. During diagnostic procedures, doctors use CT scans, X-rays, MRIs, bone scan and the results of the overall analysis.
Lung cancer is divided into four steps:
- I - the disease develops only in the lungs;
- II and III - the tumor spreads to the chest area;
- IV - numerous mestastazy in neighboring organs, spread to distant parts of the body.
Of course, the greatest risk is severe lung cancer. Stage 4 is characterized by changes in the work of all the major body systems. Projections generally unfavorable, especially in the case of elderly patients.
Diagnosis of Lung Cancer
The problem of early detection of malignant tumors in the organs of the respiratory system persists to this day. Clear signs of lung cancer are already evident in the later stages of the disease, and up to this point the disease is usually detected by chance in the course of diagnostic measures, not directly related to the tumors. Some figures confirming the unfavorable trend:
- stage I lung cancer is diagnosed in 16% of patients;
- on II - in 20-35% of patients;
- on III - in 50-75% of patients;
- more than 10% of people go to the doctor when they have already developed stage 4 lung cancer.
Late diagnosis due to the way it manifests itself lung cancer. Symptoms of the disease at stages I and II is almost not expressed and deliver minimal inconvenience, which is why people are not in a hurry to see a doctor. To reverse this trend can only regular dispensary research, preventive and diagnostic measures aimed at early detection of serious illnesses, including lung cancer.
With regard to diagnosis of lung cancer. The master here is the fluorography of the chest cavity. Despite its prevalence, the study of pictures of potential patients disappointing. Can not identify the tumor just 20-30 people from 10 thousand patients. There is no doubt that the fluoroscopy should be complemented by traditional physical examination and instrumental techniques, such as X-ray examinations, which include tomography, CT and plain film. Good results show bronchoscopy endoscopic examination, which allows to specify the size and morphological structure of the tumor.
In that case, doctors have suspected lung cancer, but the disease is identified by conventional methods is not possible, it is advisable to use a diagnostic thoracoscopy or thoracotomy, implying an urgent biopsy of the lymph nodes and the main lesion.
Implementation of all the above set of measures allows accurate diagnosis, determine the stage of lung cancer, and choose the most effective treatment strategy.
Treatment of Lung Cancer
Like many other cancers, the treatment of malignancies in the lung must be complex. Currently, doctors in specialized clinics use all the achievements of modern clinical oncology: surgery and radiation treatment for lung cancer, chemotherapy treatments, combined methods.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are conservative treatments. They involve the use of a powerful radiotherapeutic equipment, linear accelerators, and gammatronov betatron. In addition, here you can carry and synthesis of new anticancer drugs. We note that conservative surgical methods are significantly inferior in terms of efficiency, however, they have their undoubted merits. In particular, they make it possible to assist a large number of sick people, it is impossible in the case of surgery, which requires from the performers of the highest caliber and experience.
Surgical treatment of lung cancer involves resection of the affected tissues with all the necessary principles of cancer (the tumor site, ablastics technology, zoning metastasis, etc.). In most cases surgery includes resection not only the affected lung, and regional lymph nodes removal.
Successful treatment depends on the stage of lung cancer, sizes neoplasm metastasis intensity, conditions of the patient and other factors. When I and II stages of the disease can be cured in more than 70% of cases, so we advise you to contact your doctor if any adverse symptoms.
Modern methods of treatment of lung cancer allow more sparing surgery and greatly improve their chances of recovery.