Leukocytosis - a condition characterized by an excess of white blood cells (ie white blood cells) in the blood.
White blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and are part of the human immune system, protecting us from the invasion of the "enemies" and not allowing the reproduction abnormal cells.
The number of leukocytes in the blood is not constant, it is increased by emotional or physical stress, rapid temperature changes of the environment, taking protein foods, as well as diseases. In the case of the disease is a pathological leukocytosis, while the increase in the number of white blood cells from a healthy person - a physiological leukocytosis.
A significant increase (up to several hundred thousand) the number of white blood cells usually indicates serious blood diseases - leukemia, and increase to tens of thousands of points to the inflammatory process.
The main reasons for leukocytosis include:
- Acute infection - is the most common cause of leukocytosis;
- Chronic inflammation. While leukocytes combat hazardous bacteria that have penetrated into the body, starting an inflammatory process. Under some conditions, this process may take a chronic nature, resulting in increased leukocyte count continuously;
- Damage to tissue trauma;
- Overreaction by the immune system - can develop in people who suffer from severe allergies or autoimmune diseases;
- Disorders associated with damage to bone marrow, as it is produced by white blood cells;
- Stress, long or very strong psychological stress;
- Some medications.
The most common causes of leukocytosis have children:
- Infectious diseases;
- Excessive exercise;
In addition, we must not forget that though rarely, but the cause of leukocytosis in children may be acute leukemia.
Types of leukocytosis
Leukocytosis may be true or absolute (increasing or mobilization of leukocytes from bone marrow reserves) and as a redistribution or relative (increasing the number of leukocytes in the blood or by condensation of their redistribution in blood vessels).
There are also the following types of leukocytes:
1. Physiological leukocytosis: observed after exercise, meals, etc .;
2. Pathological leukocytosis symptomatic: occurs when some infectious diseases, chronic inflammatory processes, as well as by specific reaction to the collapse of the bone marrow tissue, which cause toxic effects or circulatory disorders;
3. Short leukocytosis: results from the sudden "ejection" of leukocytes in the blood, such as stress or supercooling. In such cases, the disease is reactive, ie It disappears with the cause of its occurrence;
4. neurophilic leukocytosis. This state is most often caused by an increase in education and out of neutrophils in the blood, while in the bloodstream there is an increase in the absolute number of leukocytes. There is a case of acute infection, chronic inflammation, and myeloproliferative diseases (diseases of the blood);
5. eosinophilia develops as a result promote the formation or output of eosinophils in the blood. The main reasons are allergic reactions, including foods and medicines;
6. basophilic leukocytosis due to an increase in the formation of basophils. It observed during pregnancy, ulcerative colitis, myxedema;
7. Lymphocytic leukocytosis characterized by an increase in blood lymphocytes. Observed in chronic infections (brucellosis, syphilis and tuberculosis, viral hepatitis) and some acute (whooping cough);
8. Monocyte leukocytosis is extremely rare. There malignant formations, sarcoidosis, certain bacterial infections.
Leykotsioz is not an independent disease, and because the symptoms coincide with symptoms of the disease that caused it. Children leukocytosis often asymptomatic, which is why doctors recommend that parents periodically to donate blood for the child analysis to detect abnormalities in the blood at an early stage.
The most dangerous, although the rarest kind leukocytosis is leukemia, or cancer of the blood, and therefore need to know the symptoms, not to miss the beginning of the disease. Thus, the common symptoms in leukemia leukocytosis following:
- Unexplained malaise, weakness, fatigue;
- Fever, sweating at night;
- Spontaneous bleeding, frequent bruising, bruising;
- Fainting, dizziness;
- Pain in the legs, arms and abdomen;
- Shortness of breath;
- Poor appetite;
- Unexplained weight loss.
If you find yourself two or more of the enumerated grounds, should consult a doctor and take a blood test.
Treatment of leukocytosis
Treatments leukocytosis totally dependent on the disease cause of its occurrence. With infectious processes usually prescribe antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve allergic reactions may be administered antihistamines and steroidal agents. For the treatment of leukemia chemotherapy drugs used. In some cases it may be assigned leukopheresis - extracting leukocytes from the blood and then the blood is transfused to the patient again.
It should be remembered that the treatment can not be carried out without leukocytosis determine the cause, he was summoned.