Labyrinth - a disease characterized by lesions of the internal peripheral regions of sound and vestibular analyzers. Often, the disease occurs in acute otitis media, or middle ear tuberculosis is the result of trauma.
Symptoms of labyrinthitis and course of the disease depends on the concentration process in the inner ear. Mostly labyrinthitis provoked upper respiratory infection (influenza, SARS). Sometimes the disease results from infection of the middle ear. Rarely, labyrinthitis may be caused by a bacterial infection.
Types of labyrinthitis
The disease is divided into the following types:
- Hematogenic maze. In this form of the disease infectious agents get into the inner ear, together with blood.
- Festering - leukocyte infiltration of the endo- and perilymph.
- Diffuse purulent or serous labyrinthitis, which can be extended to all parts of the bony labyrinth.
- Necrotizing, in which the bone and soft tissues maze there areas of necrosis.
- Meningogenny arising meningitis. In this form of the disease infectious agent penetrates from the subarachnoid space through the water snails.
- Narrow labyrinth, in which there is a certain loss of the web portion of the bony labyrinth.
- Serous at which the increase of the perilymph and the labyrinth swells endosteum.
- Acute suppurative or serous labyrinthitis in which abnormalities in the inner ear occur suddenly.
- Traumatic, which is the result of trauma (gunshot wound, fracture of the skull base).
- Chronic labyrinthitis when dysfunction of the inner ear occurs gradually.
Symptoms of labyrinthitis
As mentioned above, the symptoms of labyrinthitis and severity of the disease depends largely on the localization process.
As a rule, in the early stages of the disease is marked irritation of the labyrinth, shown in the following symptoms: nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, hearing loss, vomiting, upset the equilibrium. The intensity depends on the form of vertigo labyrinthitis. Balance disorders observed both at rest and during walking.
When serous labyrinthitis observed pathological changes such as the formation of edema in the soft parts of the maze and the emergence of exudate. If labyrinthitis passes without complications, the exudate gradually rezorbtsiruetsya.
With limited labyrinthitis often observed the presence of a fistula, which is mainly located in the horizontal channel. When purulent labyrinthitis form of the disease symptom is fever. And in diffuse purulent labyrinthitis is often a complication of a total loss of hearing.
If the disease is accompanied by meningitis and cerebellar abscess, the diagnosis of labyrinthitis is extremely difficult.
When serous labyrinthitis is characterized by limited or partial preservation of function of the vestibular and cochlear apparatus. At full disorder of their functions can talk about diffuse suppurative labyrinthitis.
Examination of the patient is carried out after his treatment in the hospital with specific complaints. Sometimes, to determine the cause of dizziness using special tests, but if it does not help to establish the exact cause is usually prescribed additional examination.
In the diagnosis of labyrinthitis important role played by the following studies:
- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. With these methods it is possible to see whether there is any abnormality in the brain.
- Electronystagmography. With the electrodes shall be registered movement of the eyeballs. If the cause of vertigo is damage to the inner ear, the eyeballs make certain movements. If dizziness caused by damage to the central nervous system, eyeballs perform other types of motion.
- The study of hearing - another method to detect hearing impairment. These include methods and BAYER BSER, the test response of the auditory brainstem department to help determine if it is working nerve that runs from the inner ear to the brain.
- Audiometry - a method that helps determine how well a person hears.
After the diagnosis of labyrinthitis, and confirm the diagnosis of a patient compulsorily admitted to hospital. In the treatment of labyrinthitis patient should be carefully monitored physician. The patient is recommended complete rest and a bland diet (salt-free and anhydrous). To reduce the pressure inside the labyrinth patient is prescribed methenamine and glucose. The main preparations in the treatment of labyrinthitis are antibiotics, selection of which depends on the sensitivity thereto flora of the middle ear.
When serous labyrinthitis form of treatment is to restore the function of the ear and the prevention of this form of transition in purulent.
In acute purulent labyrinthitis form should be provided to the patient the normal flow of pus. This is done by separating the new tissue from predpautinnogo space.
With limited maze for complete cure is necessary to ensure the healing of the fistula or connective bone tissue. As a rule, for this purpose, surgery is performed when the Temple was removed from the field of pathological focus.
For the treatment of hematogenic labyrinthitis and meningogennoy form prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics.
To prevent the disease is necessary to take appropriate measures to prevent common communicable diseases and timely treat any inflammation of the middle ear.