Intracranial hematoma (blood tumor) is an accumulation of blood in the cranial cavity, which reduces the
intracranial space and facilitates compression of the brain. There are similar blood accumulation as a result of rupture of the aneurysm, vascular injuries and bleeding - into the tumor, an infectious origin or as a result of stroke.
A feature of an intracranial hematoma is that the clinical manifestations do not occur immediately, but after a certain period of time.
The main risk of intracranial hematoma is that it has a significant pressure on the brain. As a result, the brain edema may be formed with a lesion of the brain tissue and its subsequent destruction.
Types of intracranial hematomas
- acute - symptoms for 3 days after the formation;
- subacute - symptoms for 21 days;
- Chronic - symptoms occur after 21 days from the date of formation.
By size distinguish small hematoma (50 ml), medium (50-100 mL) and large (greater than 100 ml).
In the place of localization of hematomas are divided into:
- epidural, located on the hard shell of the brain;
- subdural, with the localization of the brain between the substance and its hard shell;
- intracerebral and intraventricular, which account for the localization of the place directly on the substance of the brain;
- intracranial hematoma of the brain stem;
- diapedetic hematoma resulting hemorrhagic impregnation with vascular integrity is not disturbed.
The main causes of intracranial hematoma
The main cause of intracranial hematoma is a disease or injury.
Thus, subdural hemorrhage often occurs due to rupture of veins connecting the brain and venous system, and sinuses dura. The result is a hematoma, which compresses the brain tissue. Since the blood from the veins accumulates slowly, the symptoms of a subdural hematoma may not be apparent for several weeks.
Epidural hematoma is usually formed as a result of rupture of the vessel or artery between the skull and the outer surface of the dura. The arterial blood pressure is higher than in the veins, so the blood flows faster ones. Epidural hematoma is rapidly increasing in size and increases the pressure on the brain tissue. Symptoms usually occur quite rapidly, sometimes within a few hours.
Intracerebral hematoma formed by the penetration of the blood into the brain. If bleeding in the brain occurs as a result of injury, it predominantly affects the white matter of the brain. As a result of such damage there is a rupture of neurites, which cease to transmit impulses to different parts of the body. Intracerebral hematoma may occur as a result of hemorrhagic stroke. In this case, bleeding occurs from the uneven thinning of the artery walls and the blood at high pressure enters the brain tissue and fills the space. Such a hematoma may form on any part of the brain.
Thinning and rupture of blood vessels occur, usually as a result of tumor infections angionevroticheskih disorders atherosclerotic lesions, etc.
Sometimes there may be diapedetic hemorrhage occurring as a result of increased vascular permeability (changing the phasing properties of blood or tissue hypoxia). This leads to the formation of clusters around damaged blood vessels, which are often combined and formed intracranial hematoma.
The symptoms of intracranial hematoma
Often the symptoms of intracranial hematoma appear after a certain period of time. The main symptoms are dependent on the nature of intracranial hematoma and its size. Since hematoma advantageously develops as a result of traumatic injury, the symptoms and mostly dominated characteristic of brain damage. Furthermore, symptoms of hematoma may vary depending on the age of the patient.
hematoma symptoms quickly. Patients tormented severe headache, drowsiness, confusion. Often patients with epidural hematoma fall into a coma. In the formation of a hematoma of more than 150 ml of a person dies. There progressive dilatation of the pupil on the side of hematoma. With the patient can happen seizures, paralysis and paresis progressing. In children, symptoms of epidural hematoma are the following character: the absence of primary unconsciousness, swelling develops rapidly and requires immediate surgical treatment of intracranial hematoma.
In the formation of a subdural hematoma symptoms usually do not appear immediately, and the initial damage seems minor. Symptoms usually begin to appear after a few weeks. Young children may experience an increase in the size of the head. In elderly patients there subacute hematoma. Young patients experience headaches in the future may appear vomiting and nausea, seizures and convulsions. There may be an extension of the pupil from the damage, but not always. Small intracranial hematoma may resolve on their own, and large hematomas need emptying.
When intracerebral hematoma as a result of hemorrhagic stroke symptoms depend on the lesion. The most common symptoms are headache (especially on one side), wheezing, loss of consciousness and paralysis, convulsions and vomiting. If it affects the brain stem can not be treated intracranial hematoma, and the patient dies.
When an intracranial hematoma, which was formed as a result of major trauma, symptoms usually are: headache, loss of consciousness, vomiting, nausea, seizures, convulsions. To determine the localization of a bruising can usually only as a result of surgery.
In the formation of a hematoma due to rupture of the aneurysm is the main symptom of acute and sharp pain in the head (like a punch dagger).
Treatment of intracranial hematoma
Mostly intracranial hematoma treatment involves surgery. Type of operation often depends on the nature of the hematoma.
After the operation the doctor prescribes an anticonvulsant drug for the prevention or control of post-traumatic seizures. It happens that these seizures begin in a patient, even a year after the injury. For some time, the patient can be amnesia, headache, and impaired attention.
The recovery period after an intracranial hematoma is usually very long. In adult patients, the recovery period takes a minimum of six months. Children tend to recover more quickly.