Dyspepsia - a combined functional disorder of the digestive system. This set of symptoms characteristic of many diseases, as well as the border states.
Causes of dyspepsia
The main causes of dyspepsia are lack of digestive enzymes, causing insufficient absorption syndrome, or what happens more often, rough errors in the diet. Indigestion caused by malnutrition, called nutritional dyspepsia.
The symptoms of dyspepsia may experience a lack of regular meals, and an unbalanced diet.
Thus, the function disorder of the gastrointestinal tract without organic lesion leads to their functional dyspepsia (indigestion alimentary), and lack of digestive enzymes is a consequence of an organic lesion of the digestive tract. In this case, only indigestion symptom of the underlying disease.
Indigestion in children develops due to non-compliance, or the amount of food composition capabilities of the gastrointestinal tract of the child. The most common cause of dyspepsia in infants is overfeeding the child or delay the introduction of new food diet. Also, newborn babies and children during the first weeks of life is a physiological indigestion caused by the immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract. Physiological indigestion in children does not require treatment, and passes through the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Dyspepsia in older children often arises in the period of intensive growth of the organism, for example, as a teenager, and it is associated with an imbalance of hormones (so-called critical periods of development). In this state, the gastro-intestinal tract is especially vulnerable to errors in nutrition, while teenagers often abuse fast food, soft drinks and foods with a lot of digestible carbohydrates, which leads to indigestion.
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Types of dyspepsia
Alimentary or functional dyspepsia can be the following types:
- Fermentation dyspepsia. Called predominance in the diet of foods high in carbohydrates causes fermentation (sweet and flour products, honey, fruit, peas, cabbage, beans and so on.) As well as fermentation products (kvass, Braga, pickled vegetables, etc.). In the gut microflora develops fermentation;
- Putrid indigestion. Occurs when the excessive use of the products of protein origin, especially those requiring a long time to digest. Basically, it refers to the red varieties of meat (lamb, pork, beef) and their derivatives (sausages and other meat products), which stimulates the development of abuse putrid intestinal microflora;
- Adipose (soap) dyspepsia. Called by eating too much of refractory fats such as lard and mutton and their derivatives.
Dyspepsia is a consequence of enzyme deficiency can be the following types:
- Gepatogennaya (hepatic origin);
- Holetsistogennaya (caused by a violation of secretion);
- Pancreatogenic (lack of pancreatic enzymes);
- Gastrogennaya (caused by the violation of the secretory function of the stomach);
- Enterogenous (broken isolation intestinal juice);
- Mixed indigestion.
Symptoms of dyspepsia
The symptoms of dyspepsia may vary depending on the type of disorder, but there are common features that are typical for all kinds of disease. Common symptoms of dyspepsia are:
- Unpleasant sensations in the epigastric region (upper abdomen): a feeling of heaviness, fullness, and sometimes the pain of varying intensity;
- Belching. Single regurgitation may not be a sign of disorder, but evidence of persistent dyspepsia;
- Heartburn. Burning sensation in the epigastric and retrosternal region caused by ingestion of aggressive gastric contents into the esophagus, which normally should not happen;
- Flatulence. Bloating of the abdomen, caused by the increased gas in the intestines, as well as enhanced gas separation;
- Upset chair. A characteristic symptom of dyspepsia are irregular bowel usually frequent.
Symptoms of dyspepsia caused by the lack of digestive enzymes are as follows: bad taste in the mouth, nausea, rumbling and transfusion in the abdomen, bloating, loss of appetite, loose stools. He suffers from the general condition, the patient is experiencing fatigue, weakness, malaise, may be sleep disturbances and headaches. Kal contains the remains of undigested food in large quantities.
Fermentative dyspepsia peculiar rumbling in the stomach, much flatulence, loose stools with the release of light foamy stool with a characteristic sour smell, possible pain.
Symptoms of dyspepsia putrid resemble symptoms of intoxication: general malaise, weakness, nausea, severe headache. Chair speeded up, stool thin, dark, with a sharp putrid odor.
For fatty dyspepsia diarrhea less characteristic than for other types of dyspepsia. Patients complain of a feeling of heaviness and fullness in the stomach, belching, bloating and pain, worse after half an hour or an hour after meals. Stool copious, whitish excrement, contain residues of undigested fat, with characteristic fat shine.
Dyspepsia in infants manifests itself regurgitation, bloating, frequent stools (more than 6 times a day), green bowel movements contain whitish flakes. The kid is naughty, disturbed sleep, appetite decreased.
Diagnosis is based on the study of the characteristic symptoms of dyspepsia, with carrying out refinement of laboratory (blood count, urine, feces analysis on helminth eggs, coprogram, study the secretion of the gastrointestinal tract) and instrumental (fibrogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound and X-rays of the abdomen and so forth. ) methods for diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Alimentary or functional dyspepsia is diagnosed based on the characteristic symptoms of dyspepsia, establishing the power of error, fecal absence of pathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract.
Treatment of dyspepsia
Treatment of dyspepsia nutritional origin is to appoint a hungry pause, lasting from a day and a half, then gradual introduction of food. Particular attention is given to balance diet and adherence meal. It is necessary to restrict the use of products that served the cause of dyspepsia. You should also monitor the drinking regime, the recommended amount of water should be at least 1, 5 liters per day.
Treatment of dyspepsia caused by an enzyme deficiency, is to correct the enzyme deficiency, which is used for replacement therapy drugs, contain the necessary enzymes, and diet, the modified portion of the digestive tract to unload. With this type dyspepsia is necessary to treat the underlying disease.