Hyperuricemia is considered to be a condition in which the level of uric acid in the blood exceeds the limit values. Normally, the concentration of uric acid in the blood should be between 240-400 microns / l.
Causes of hyperuricemia
Causes of hyperuricemia can serve two factors:
- excessive formation of uric acid (hyperuricemia metabolic or exchange);
- violation of excretion of uric acid by the kidneys (renal hyperuricemia).
The cause of renal hyperuricemia may serve as a hereditary factor and acquisitions. In any case, the trigger is a violation of filtration and tubular kidney function. Acquired hyperuricaemia usually occurs in old age is already due to sclerosis of renal vessels (as in the walls of blood vessels growing scar tissue, which leads to narrowing of the blood vessels). Also acquired hyperuricemia may be the result of atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and sometimes prolonged and unjustified taking certain medications (particularly diuretics and aspirin).
Constant improvement of indicators of uric acid in the urine, first contribute to the formation of sand in the kidneys, and eventually stones (urolithiasis develops). Often the result of a violation of purine metabolism is gouty arthritis (gout) - chronic inflammation of the joints of the character, which is accompanied by severe pain and deformity of the joints.
Generally, gout for many years was considered the only hereditary disease. However, in recent years there have been numerous studies, according to which information about gout and the causes of its development greatly enhanced.
Thus, we already know that gouty arthritis and urate stones occur against the backdrop of a violation of purine metabolism.
Recent studies have also shown that a violation of purine metabolism can contribute to disruption of the beta cells of the pancreas, resulting in the inability to develop these cells to synthesize insulin. Thus, already for anybody not surprising combination of diseases such as diabetes, gout and kidney stones.
Often hyperuricemia is caused by alcohol abuse, long-term use of drugs (diuretics, salicylates). The increased concentration of uric acid in the blood leads to the fact that it is getting into the joint fluid, where the cluster acid crystals form in the joints and periarticular tissues, destroy cartilage and bone tissue, causing inflammation and deformation.
The symptoms of hyperuricemia
The most important symptom of hyperuricemia is an increased rate of uric acid in the blood. Naturally, for the diagnosis of the disease is necessary to donate blood for the biochemical analysis.
If the results of the analysis show that the patient is at risk, that is, the level of uric acid is the boundary indicators, it is recommended to immediately go on a diet for hyperuricemia.
The treatment of hyperuricemia
The doctors in the treatment of hyperuricemia using several approaches. The first step is to follow a diet for hyperuricemia, which involves the complete exclusion from the diet of foods high in purines. Thus, should be excluded from the diet following products:
- Alcoholic drinks and beer (sometimes allowed a small amount of dry wine);
- fish and meat dishes in the baked, fried and stewed;
- hearty fish and meat soups;
- heart, kidney, liver, sausages, various meats, canned foods and legumes (peas, beans, soybeans).
Also diet for hyperuricemia intended to limit the use of spinach, sorrel, cheese, radishes, cocoa, chocolate, cauliflower. But welcome the following products:
- chicken, turkey, rabbit;
- a variety of vegetarian soups and first dishes prepared on the "second" fish or meat broth;
- milk and milk products;
- berries, herbs, vegetables and fruits.
Particular preference in the treatment of hyperuricemia should be given fruits and vegetables rich in potassium (eggplant, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumbers, carrots, sweet peppers, apricots, peas, grapes, melons, pears, apples). The berries will be the most useful of bright red, blue and black (cherries, cherries, cranberries, blueberries, viburnum, hawthorn, cranberries). All of them are rich in substances that promote reduction of the concentration of uric acid in the blood.
In the treatment of hyperuricemia should drink every day about 2-2, 5 liters of water. A large number of liquid dilutes the urine and is an excellent prevention of kidney stones. The water would be the best spring, it is useful to add a little lemon juice, cranberries or cranberry.
Once a week should be done fasting days.
When medical treatment of hyperuricemia in patients administered probenecid, which helps to reduce uric acid. When symptoms of hyperuricemia doctors also widely used allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor.