Brief description of the disease
Under hypertensive crisis meant a sudden, sharp rise in blood pressure to the level of 220/120 mm Hg. column and above. If assistance in hypertensive crisis has been provided too late, the disease can lead to irreversible neuro disorder of the heart, central nervous system and major blood vessels. However, given the level of equipment of modern medicine, these effects are uncommon. But in any case, you should contact the clinic and take care of your health, because high blood pressure during hypertensive crisis lasts from several hours to several days, accompanied by psychological and physical discomfort.
The causes of hypertensive crisis
The sudden increase in pressure may occur due to emotional stress, eating large amounts of alcohol, a sharp change in weather conditions, and taking certain medications, such as clonidine or beta-andrenoblokatorov.
In addition to the above reasons, hypertensive crisis occurs in various diseases such as arteriosclerotic lesions of aorta, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, kidney disease and nephroptosis. It should be noted that all these diseases are usually not directly cause a hypertensive crisis, but they contribute to the occurrence of cerebral edema, which increases blood pressure.
Hypertensive crisis - symptoms and clinical picture
Modern medicine claims that emergency care for hypertensive crisis should be provided in the first minutes after the start of the attack. This is due to the unpleasant symptoms that follow a sudden rise in blood pressure. Among them we would like to mention:
- feelings of fear, anxiety at the slightest provocation;
- chills, flushing;
- facial swelling;
- blurred vision;
- strong and prolonged vomiting;
- neurological disorders, accompanied by dissociation of reflexes
In addition, increased blood pressure often leads to exacerbation of coronary heart disease, the development of tachycardia, brightly pain syndrome. Immediate relief hypertensive crisis necessary in cases where it is accompanied by pulmonary edema, coma, arterial embolism, and acute renal failure.
In some cases, when diagnosed with hypertensive crisis symptoms indicate an increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In this situation, assistance should be provided as early as possible to prevent serious complications. Gipoineticheskie and eukinetic crises occur more favorably. Their development is accompanied by a rise in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Consequently, the symptoms grow slowly and patient man has much more time to see a doctor and get professional help for hypertensive crisis.
We mentioned above that in most cases the pressure increase does not lead to serious consequences. The only exception - a complicated hypertensive crisis that threatens human life. His symptoms occur in conditions such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, left ventricle failure, pulmonary edema, hematuria, and acute myocardial infarction.
Hypertensive crisis - the treatment of the disease
Patients were advised to stay in bed and lack of psychological stress. Furthermore, it is desirable to limit food intake. Optimal scheme diet - 10 or 10a. Make sure to note that the relief of hypertensive crisis should be gradual, as the sharp decline in pressure is no less dangerous than his sudden elevation. If blood pressure reduction is carried out too quickly, it can cause renal ischemia, development of stroke or myocardial infarction. Emergency care for hypertensive crisis involves the use of the following drugs:
- Clonidine - ingested every hour, first to 0, 2 mg, followed by 0, 1 mg;
- Nifedipine - available in capsules or tablets. Standard dosage - 5-10 mg (1 tablet) under the tongue;
- sodium nitroprusside - intravenously. If the desired effect is not observed, the drug is stopped;
- diazoxide - administered intravenously, the dose - 50-150 mg. This tool is used with caution because it can cause side effects - angina, edema, nausea, vomiting;
- phentolamine - 5-15 mg IV is particularly effective as hypertensive crisis associated with pheochromocytoma.
Emergency care for hypertensive crisis
As the disease develops very quickly, you need to know about the basic techniques to arrest the sudden increase in pressure. First, dial the station "Ambulance" and call, briefly describe the situation. Then, the patient lay in bed. The best option - a comfortable semi-sitting position on the expansion of the cushions. This posture will prevent asthma attacks - ortapnoe. Warm feet of the patient. To do this, wrap them with a warm blanket warmer or lower the foot in a hot bath. Good help and mustard, put on the leg.
Provide fresh air into the room. If a hypertensive crisis occurs more than once, then the patient probably has a tablet to be taken in such situations. Find them and ask the victim about the dosage. When severe chest pain can give the patient nitroglycerin.
Do not forget about the psychological support of the patient. It is important for any illness, but during a hypertensive crisis are warm and affectionate words are especially necessary, because very often a person starts to panic because of the misunderstanding of the situation that only worsens his condition. Reassure the victim, talk to him, convince him that everything will be fine. I assure you that in this case the relief of hypertensive crisis will pass the most quickly and painlessly.