General characteristics of the disease
Farsightedness or hyperopia - this eye disease with impaired visual acuity when looking at objects placed nearby. However, when a high degree of presbyopia person sees distorted objects located on it as a distance of 20-30 cm, and more 10 m.
The disease leads to a systematic strain on the eye muscles, so far-sighted people often suffer from headaches and eye fatigue. From farsightedness some extent suffers an average of about every second inhabitant of the Earth over 30 years. At the age of about one year and after 50 years of farsightedness - the natural state of the human visual system.
Reasons for hyperopia
Normally, a good man who sees the image focused on the retina, rather than on a plane for her, as is the case of farsightedness. The cause of abnormal refractive eye often appears small size of the eyeball of the anteroposterior axis. That is why infants farsightedness is a natural physiological phenomenon, which in most cases takes place with age alone.
Another possible reason for the far-sightedness - a violation of accommodation of the lens, its inability to properly change the curvature. This disorder leads to a different type of disease - the age farsightedness or presbyopia. The older a person is, the less accommodative possibilities of his eyes, and the stronger the blur located close objects.
Types of hyperopia
In addition to the natural physiological hyperopia in infants the disease can be congenital. We are talking about cases where the eyesight of a child with time on their own does not come back to normal. The reason for this form of farsightedness may serve not only the small size of the eyeball, and congenital weak refractive power of the lens or cornea.
In congenital hyperopia in children with a coefficient above 3.0 diopters there is a high probability of developing comorbidity - friendly form of strabismus. To it leads the eye muscles overstrain the child and the constant reduction of the eye to the nose for greater clarity of vision. Further progression of the disease can cause more severe complications in children hyperopia - amblyopia (impaired vision one eye).
Age farsightedness characteristic of people over 45 years old. The disease is caused by age-related changes of the muscles and tissues of the eye. The lens over time, sclerosing, compacted, ciliary muscle weakens and the eye loses its ability to normal refraction.
Age farsightedness - the natural state of man. Prevent it is impossible, but you can avoid the consequences of age farsightedness: blurred vision, headaches and eyestrain. To do this, you should promptly start the correction of hyperopia with glasses, contact methods or surgical treatment.
Often a young age farsightedness become hidden. Eyes more accommodative possibilities are great, and the person does not feel problems with vision, but overexertion of the eye muscles leads to eyestrain, headaches and nausea. Over time, the latent disease becomes apparent, in the case of delayed diagnosis farsightedness in children threatens to turn into a squint or amblyopia.
Diagnosis of hyperopia
The main symptom of hyperopia - poor vision at close range at a normal distance vision. This symptom is easily installed by an ophthalmologist during an eye examination by a table Sivtseva with letters of various sizes, as well as through the use of plus and minus lenses.
Diagnostics farsightedness in children and adults involves the use of a computer and phoropter autorefractometry. The optical power of the cornea is measured using keratometry, and the length of the longitudinal axis of the eye through ehobiometrii.
Far-sightedness in children and young patients is checked only in conditions of forced dilation of the pupils of atropine sulfate. This method allows you to ease accommodation of the eye and facilitates the diagnosis of latent hyperopia.
Conservative treatment of hyperopia
The main goal of the treatment of hyperopia - the change in optical power of the eye to the image focused on the retina, rather than in a plane behind it. The most common method of conservative treatment of hyperopia are glasses. Far-sighted people use them while reading, using the computer, watching TV and other activities with a primary concentration eyes at close range.
An alternative to glasses for the correction of hyperopia are considered contact lenses for day or night wear, made of mineral or organic materials. Unlike glasses the lenses are comfortable during sports or outdoor activities. However, they can not be used in the treatment of hyperopia in children, and their application involves the use of special makeup for women.
Part of the conservative treatment of hyperopia are hardware techniques to improve vision: ultrasound therapy, electrical stimulation, glasses-massagers, vacuum massage, etc. In some cases, they can significantly improve eyesight without resorting to surgical correction of hyperopia.
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Surgical correction of hyperopia
The laser can change the abnormal shape of the cornea - a major cause of farsightedness. The laser beam removes a layer of eye tissue and for all at the same time changes the curvature of the refraction of light, ie, refraction.
Laser correction - one of the fastest ways to treat farsightedness. The operation lasts for several minutes under local anesthesia, and the patient is already on the same day can be sent home. However, as with other kind of surgical intervention, there is a risk of postoperative complications and the need for re-correcting hyperopia. Treatment using a laser is not used in the form of farsightedness age with significantly impaired eye accommodation.
In patients with a high degree of farsightedness vision correction it is customary to begin with preparatory stage - or kollagenoplastiki sclerosis. The essence of this surgical technique to create a new corset for the sclera with the help of donor tissue. Only after the patient stops the progression of the disease, it is sent to the laser correction of farsightedness.
If thinning of the retina as a complication of the disease, a preparatory stage in the surgical treatment of hyperopia is also a laser coagulation. It is performed with a laser and helps attach the bottom to the eye retina, preventing detachment and degeneration.
The disease is the most serious degree, including the age and hyperopia, treated by implantation into the eye or multifocal phakic lens. This hyperopia correction method is used in cases when other methods of treatment have failed.