Immunodeficiency - a collection of different states of the organism, in which disrupted the functioning of the human immune system. When this condition infections occur more often than usual, take place very heavy and long lasting. By origin is hereditary immune deficiency (primary) or acquired (secondary). When different types of immunodeficiency infection affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, skin and other organs. The severity, the species and the nature of the disease depends on the type of immunodeficiency. When immunodeficiency in humans can develop autoimmune diseases and allergic reactions.
Primary immunodeficiency - a disease of the immune system of the hereditary nature. The disease is passed from parents to children and persists throughout life. There are many different forms of primary immunodeficiency. According to medical statistics this state is shown at one baby for ten thousand. Some of the known forms of primary immunodeficiency manifested immediately after birth, and the other forms of the disease for many years may not appear not at all. Approximately 85% of the diagnosed disease at a young age (up to twenty). Primary immune deficiency in 70% of cases are diagnosed in boys, as most of the syndromes of disease is directly linked to the X chromosome.
Genetic defects in primary immunodeficiency in humans are divided into several groups. In humoral immunodeficiency in humans broken immunoglobulin synthesis, cell immunodeficiency characterized by an insufficient number of lymphocytes in the blood.
Defects in phagocytosis manifested in defective leukocytes trapping bacteria. If a defect of the body's proteins are not able to destroy the foreign cells.
Among primary immunodeficiencies separately allocate combined immunodeficiency. Combined immunodeficiency associated with genetic defects leading to dysfunction of B-cells and T-lymphocytes. In this disease, and impaired production of antibodies decreases the function of cellular immunity.
Secondary immunodeficiency - the presence in the human body acquired diseases of the immune system. Because of weakened immunity the human body are often attacked by various infectious diseases. AIDS - the most famous example of secondary immunodeficiency. This disease can develop under the influence of radiation, drugs, a variety of chronic diseases.
This condition may also develop in protein-energy malnutrition, as well as a lack of vitamins and minerals in the body. Especially detrimental to the state of immunity deficiency of zinc, selenium and vitamin A secondary immunodeficiency often affects people with chronic metabolic disorders. When the disease is very important time to identify bacterial infections and start the necessary treatment.
Symptoms of immunodeficiency
Currently practiced different types of treatment of immune deficiency, but some of them are still in the experimental stages of development. Treatment of immune deficiency is not without the help of general principles - vaccination, infection control, substitution treatment.
For a human immunodeficiency characteristic manifestation of severe bacterial infections recurrent nature. Bacterial infections lead to the development of bronchitis, sinusitis, otitis media. Patients with this disease often develop thrush, periodontitis, the body formed papillomas and warts, baldness occurs and eczema. When this condition is often diagnosed by a variety of hematological disorders. In some cases, can observe the digestive system disorders, vasculitis, convulsions, encephalitis, arthritis. According to some information, in immunodeficiency increases risk of gastric cancer.
Treatment of Immunodeficiency
Nowadays immunocorrection spend several ways - bone marrow transplantation, the use of immunoglobulins, immunomodulators. Generally, treatment is conducted in immunodeficiency by subcutaneous or intravenous immunoglobulin.
When any type of immunodeficiency is very important to avoid infection and to follow the principles of a healthy lifestyle. Patients with the disease is also very important time to identify bacterial and fungal infections and take measures for their treatment. Under certain conditions the body should be regular prophylactic treatment with antibiotics. With infections of the chest physiotherapy techniques appropriate to apply, and regularly carry out special exercises.