The term "hemorrhagic fever" combined group of infectious diseases as a result of which there is a toxic damage the walls of blood vessels and the development of hemorrhagic syndrome. The disease is characterized by general intoxication of the organism and development of multiple organ pathologies. Let's consider in more detail the main symptoms, treatment and prevention methods of hemorrhagic fever.
The causes of hemorrhagic fevers
The disease causes the following viruses: Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae. All of these viruses are united by one common feature - the relationship to human vascular endothelial cells. Carriers of the virus are the ticks and mosquitoes. Some types of hemorrhagic fever transmitted food, contact-household and waterways.
Man has a relatively high sensitivity to the hemorrhagic fever. Especially susceptible persons whose professional activity is connected with the constant contact with wildlife.
The mechanism of damage in hemorrhagic fevers
- vascular injury by a virus or a product of its exchange;
- inflammation and violation of the integrity of the vessel walls, the selection of biologically active substances into the lumen;
- the development of DIC due to lack of bleeding (simultaneous blood clotting in some vessels, and low in other clotting).
All these symptoms of hemorrhagic fevers caused by a lack of oxygen in the tissues (hypoxia) is a violation of the heart, brain, kidney, lung, and significant loss of blood.
Disease severity depends on its type, but also on the characteristics of the human body and the degree of activity of its immune system. Mostly hemorrhagic fever ends complete recovery, but it does happen and deaths.
The symptoms of hemorrhagic fever
In most cases, all kinds of hemorrhagic fevers are similar throughout. The incubation period is 1-3 weeks, followed by an initial period (2-7 days), during the height (up to 2 weeks) and the period of recovery (up to several weeks).
In the initial period of the disease is observed intoxication and fever, which is accompanied by hallucinations, delusions, and loss of consciousness. Against the background of general intoxication characteristic symptom of hemorrhagic fever is a toxic hemorrhage. There have heart rhythm disturbances and reduction in blood pressure. Complete blood count shows leukopenia and thrombocytopenia growing.
Just before the onset of the crisis period the patient briefly returned to normal, then there is an increase of toxicity, disturbed hemodynamics occur multiple organ disorders. The period of convalescence a gradual abatement of symptoms of hemorrhagic fever and restore the normal state of the body systems.
Hemorrhagic fever contributes to the development of severe complications, the patient is often life-threatening coma, acute renal failure, toxic shock.
Diagnosis of hemorrhagic fevers
The basis for the diagnosis of hemorrhagic fevers are epidemiological data analysis and clinical picture. A specific diagnosis is carried out using the following methods:
- immunosorbent assay (ELISA);
- serology (RNIF, RSK);
- virological methods;
- detection of viral antigens (PCR).
The main feature of hemorrhagic fevers is thrombocytopenia, and the presence of red blood cells in the stool and urine, as well as the presence of symptoms of anemia. On bleeding during gastrointestinal indicates a positive fecal occult blood.
The main symptoms of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are aneozinofiliya, leukopenia, elevated band neutrophils. Urine protein observed and cylinders, and in the blood residual nitrogen.
Treatment of hemorrhagic fever
In any form of hemorrhagic fever patient should be hospitalized immediately. In the treatment of fever patient prescribed strict bed rest. The food should be consumed semi-digestible and high-calorie meals, the most rich in vitamins: fruit and berry juices, vegetable broths, fruit drinks, extracts of rose hips. Be sure to prescribe vitamin therapy. For four days you should take menadione (vitamin K).
Furthermore, glucose solution administered intravenously and the period of fever can be made small amounts of blood transfusion. If necessary, prescribe drugs iron kampolona and antianemina. The structure of the complex treatment includes and antihistamines. The patient was discharged from the hospital only after complete recovery, after which time it is observed as outpatients.
Prevention of hemorrhagic fever
In the first place for the prevention of hemorrhagic fevers should take measures aimed at the destruction of carriers of infection and prevention of bites. To this end, in places of natural propagation is carried out thorough cleaning of areas prepared under the settlement, ticks and mosquitoes.
In places where the epidemic is especially prevalent, it is recommended to wear tight clothing, gloves, boots, and special antimicrobial masks and coveralls. In forest areas it is recommended to use repellents.
On some types of hemorrhagic fever vaccination is carried out.