Hemoptysis - a sputum mixed with blood or a significant amount of blood when coughing from the respiratory tract. Blood can be uniformly paint over phlegm in brown, red or pink, depending on the disease. Sputum there may be foamy or jelly-like appearance. Sometimes blood in the saliva mistaken for hemoptysis. Although the source of blood in the saliva may be nosebleeds or bleeding gums.
Causes of hemoptysis
The most common syndrome, hemoptysis is observed in bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneumonia, abscess. Causes of hemoptysis can be an adenoma of the bronchus, lung carcinoma, pulmonary artery thromboembolism, mitral valve stenosis. Hemoptysis is one of the main symptoms of pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arteritis, idiopathic progressive induration of the lungs, amyloid degeneration and hemorrhagic gemostaziopatii.
Syndrome of hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage can occur when an aortic aneurysm rupture with subsequent release to the bronchus.
If pulmonary tuberculosis and often develop a syndrome of hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage. This bleeding is accompanied by pain in the chest, associated with inflammation of the pleura, prolonged dry cough of varying intensity and fever.
Regular and prolonged hemoptysis in smokers may indicate the presence of tumors in the lungs.
Diagnosis of hemoptysis
Regular hemoptysis in patients up to thirty years without any signs of a disease refers to adenoma of the bronchus
. When renewing bronchiectasis hemoptysis is accompanied by regular purulent sputum
. Severe pleural pain with hemoptysis indicate a possible heart attack
. To establish the true cause of hemoptysis helps physical examination: the noise of the friction serous membrane light indicates the presence of a pathology associated with damage to the shell of the lungs (pneumonia, abscess, coccidioidomycosis, angiitis); local rales indicate a possible lung carcinoma
. The initial examination necessarily include chest X-ray diagnostics
. But even if the results of X-ray is normal probability of having the disease or tumors bronchiectasis as a factor of bleeding
. X-ray of the chest allows to control the liquid level, which points to a collection of pus, or disposed distal tumor, choking bronchus
. Some patients received computed tomography of the chest and bronchoscopy
. Survey rigid endoscope is especially necessary with abundant hemoptysis
Help with hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage
Pulmonary hemoptysis - the allocation of a large amount of blood through the respiratory tract, without coughing or during coughing. Cough without blood in the oral cavity respiratory follows jet. Causes of pulmonary hemoptysis often are lung cancer and tuberculosis.
Blood, released in pulmonary hemoptysis, scarlet, foam or minimized. For pulmonary hemoptysis shows emergency hospitalization in a medical institution.
First aid for hemoptysis is that the person must be given the position of "half-sitting," exalted position, to reassure him, to prohibit talk and move. On the chest is strictly forbidden to put the banks impose mustard, hot water bottles and hot compresses. In the affected area of the chest should be put an ice pack, and allow the patient to swallow small pieces of ice. Reflex spasm if swallowed reduce the blood circulation of the blood vessels of the lungs.
Treatment of hemoptysis
The main aim of the treatment of hemoptysis is to ensure the normal functioning of the heart and lungs and prevent asphyxia. Treatment hemoptysis is bedrest and receiving drugs that suppress cough - opiates (hydrocodone 5 mg four to six times per day, 10-30 mg of codeine).
At the beginning of treatment with rigid bronchoscopy reveal the source of the bleeding, and then isolate the unaffected lung and ensure its ventilation
. When respiratory insufficiency and massive hemoptysis (allocation of about 0, 6 liters of blood in two days), resulting in blood entering the respiratory tract, requires aspiration
. To isolate the damaged section to easily enter special tube with an inflatable balloon for the procedure incubation light
. Given the localization of the source of bleeding and the condition of the respiratory function of the patient, choose a classic or a surgical method for the treatment of hemoptysis
. Resection of the affected area of the lung can not be carried out at inoperable cancer and the expected severe impairment of respiratory function
. With a significant loss of lung function is performed catheterization and embolization of bronchial arteries
. In this case, before the procedure bleeding site tamponiruyut balloon catheter lavage performed fibrinogen solution or saline is administered intravenously vasopressin
With massive hemoptysis and submassive angiography method is used, which includes selective bronchial artery embolization. Method angiography allows you to save a considerable amount of lung tissue. This method is used for chronic lung disease patients.