Traumatic brain injury
Mechanical damage to the bones of the skull and brain are of varying severity to a separate list of medical trauma - traumatic brain injury.
Today complicated traumatic brain injury in the lead in the list of the most common traumatic injuries leading to full or partial disability of the victims and to the death. According to official data of medical statistics head injuries ahead of cancer and heart disease and are on the first place among the causes of death of working adults under the age of forty-five years.
This sad fact is caused by inevitable progressive acceleration of the pace of modern life, leading not only to an increase in this type of injury, but also to the weighting of the consequences.
The most common effects of traumatic brain injury is a disruption of normal circulation of the brain, as a consequence, resulting in partial or complete loss of brain function.
To return to normal life and save the people affected by traumatic brain injury, first aid must be provided immediately. The most important, and sometimes decisive, are the right things in the first minutes after the injury.
Types of head injuries
Injuries to soft tissues of the skull are divided into two basic types:
- Closed trauma (hemorrhage, hematoma, contusions);
- Open (injured).
Classification of traumatic brain injury is as follows:
- Closed head injuries are characterized by lesions of the brain and skull fracture without bone structures.
- Open head injuries are divided in turn into two subspecies:
- Penetrating (in violation of the integrity of the hard meninges, leading to post-traumatic infection of brain tissue);
- Non-penetrating (with the absence of violations of the integrity of the hard meninges).
Types of brain injury in traumatic brain injury:
- Concussion of the brain;
- Brain injury;
- Compression of the brain.
According to the severity of traumatic brain injuries are classified as follows:
- Mild traumatic brain injury (13-15 b. Glasgow): bruises and concussion mild;
- Average degree of traumatic brain injury (9-12 b. Glasgow): brain injury of moderate severity;
- Severe degree of traumatic brain injury (9 b. Glasgow): severe bruises and compression of the brain.
The symptoms of traumatic brain injury
The specific symptoms that appear after a traumatic brain injury, are directly dependent on its clinical form:
- brain concussion. This type of traumatic brain injury is characterized by the absence of damage and fracture of the skull bones. Composition cerebrospinal fluid and its pressure are normal. The symptoms - dizziness, tinnitus, weakness, sweating, flushing of the face, difficulty sleeping, and sometimes - a short-term memory loss.
- Bruising of the brain - refers to the more severe type of traumatic brain injury, the effects of which can adversely affect the health of the victim, even after several decades. Symptoms - loss of consciousness, nausea, repeated vomiting, disruption of the hearing, vision, speech, etc. In more detail the symptoms of brain injury are described in the relevant section, depending on the degree of severity of the traumatic brain injury (mild, moderate or severe).
- Compression of the brain. This injury manifested the following symptoms: headache considerable force, repeated vomiting, high blood pressure, anisocoria (unilateral mydriasis), focal epileptic seizures, impaired consciousness until the onset of coma.
Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury
The probability of a positive outlook for the victim of a traumatic brain injury is dependent on the most timely and accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis combined with the treatment, adequate severity of the patient, minimize the negative effects of traumatic brain injury and are the key to a full recovery of all vital functions and body systems.
Of particular importance of early diagnosis of traumatic brain injury due to a significant risk of secondary (post-traumatic) brain damage occurring against the backdrop of a hypotonic or ischemic syndrome. Full description of how to conduct ultrasound brain vessels and neck http://www.happydoctor.ru/uzi/cerebrum.
The most important criteria is to clarify the neurological status of the victim. Evaluates the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Although the overall examination of the patient is indispensable in terms of rapid assessment of his condition, it does not provide sufficiently complete clinical picture, so professionals use instrumental methods of diagnosis:
- X-ray examination is mandatory prescribed to patients who have suffered a head injury and unconscious, in addition to X-ray of the brain take pictures of the cervical spine;
- Computed tomography is the most accurate method of diagnosis in traumatic brain injury;
- Lumbar puncture;
- Measurement of intracranial pressure.
Treatment of traumatic brain injury
The choice of tactics of the patient and the treatment of traumatic brain injury depends on its type and severity of the patient's condition. The undisputed fact is the following - the treatment of traumatic brain injury, regardless of their severity, should be compulsorily carried out in a neurological, neurosurgical or trauma hospital.
Emergency first aid for traumatic brain injury includes emergency transport to nearest casualty department of any medical institution.
First aid for traumatic brain injury at the scene is primarily in the normalization and maintenance of respiratory and cardiac activity of the victim. For this purpose it is necessary to ensure the free passage of air (clean the mouth and nasal cavity with blood, mucus, vomit and other contaminants impede breathing). If the victim is in a state of shock is necessary to use painkillers.
Timing of treatment of traumatic brain injury in a favorable dynamics of the intended stay in the hospital for at least 2-4 weeks, and in the first ten days after the injury - in compliance with strict bed rest.