Granuloma limited cluster of cells called the young connective tissue, resembling in form a bundle of small size. Such formations appear in the defeat of the organism diverse infectious agents (tuberculosis, syphilis, rabies, etc..) Or collagen diseases (such as rheumatism). In addition, they develop at the site of a foreign body in contact with the skin and mucous membranes.
Origin of granulomas
The etiology of the granulomas varied. One of the classifications of these entities is based on their origin:
- Of unknown origin.
Noncommunicable granulomas are caused by medication effects (granulomatous hepatitis) or occupational dust diseases (talcosis, silicosis, asbestosis, and others.). They develop and around the various foreign bodies.
With origins closely related treatment granulomas infectious nature (in typhoid and typhus, tularemia, rabies, syphilis, viral encephalitis, tuberculosis, and others.), So how to get rid of small foci of inflammation can only be destroying the pathogen that caused them.
By the granulomas of unknown nature are growths in the Horton's disease and Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis.
Types of granulomas
The classification of morphological characters are three main types of granulomas:
- Epithelioid cell or epitelioidotsitomy;
- Macrophage or fagotsitomy;
In terms of metabolism distinguish education from high and low metabolism. First come under the influence of toxic agents (leprosy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, etc..) And are the epithelioid cell nodules. Second occur under the influence of inert bodies and are composed of giant cell debris.
Another one classification granulomas are divided into two groups:
- The specific morphology that is characteristic of a particular infectious disease. In the study of overgrown cells can be identified pathogen. This group includes annular, leprosum, tuberculosis, skleromnaya, syphilitic granuloma;
- Non-specific, without any characteristic traits. Arises as infectious diseases (typhus and typhoid fever, leishmaniasis), and in non-communicable diseases (silicosis, asbestosis).
Consider the features of the disease can be the example of two interesting varieties of granulomas: eosinophilic and pyogenic.
Pyogenic granuloma (botryomycoma)
Is a slightly elevated formation of scarlet, brown or blue-black. Height pyogenic granuloma caused by swelling of the surrounding tissue and the accelerated development of the capillary network as a result of injuries - cuts, abrasions or injections.
The disease develops rapidly. Sometimes pyogenic granulomas are starting to bleed slightly since closing their skin is very thin. For unknown reasons, while these formations can occur in pregnant women, but are more common in adults 30 years of age and children.
The characteristic symptoms of granuloma include:
- The bright red, dark red, purple or brown-black;
- Thick consistency;
- Shiny, slightly bleeding surface;
- The size of a diameter of 1 to 5 cm;
- Location - on the lips and gums, lining of the nose and fingers;
- The initial growth and then a slight decrease in size.
Typically, pyogenic granulomas disappear on their own, but if it persists, it is recommended to make a biopsy and make sure that the tumor is not cancerous.
Effective treatment of granulomas - surgical as conservative measures (use of ointments, green stuff) do not give a positive result. Education excised, and its base scrape special spicy "spoon" and then sutured. The operation is performed under local anesthesia, the likelihood of recurrence is minimized.
Eosinophilic granuloma (illness Taratynova)
It is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by the appearance of bone infiltrations, which are rich in eosinophils. The disease is rare, it affects, as a rule, pre-school children.
Eosinophilic granuloma - a single or multiple lesions in tubular and flat bones. Most often affects the hip, pelvis, skull bones and vertebrae.
The initial symptoms of granuloma are swelling and tenderness in the affected area. If the disease occurs in the bones of the skull, the swollen portion becomes soft, and the edge of the bone defect detectable crater-like thickening. With the development of a defect in the long bones is palpated clavate thickening. The skin over the swelling is usually not changed.
Other symptoms may be noted granulomas burning and itching, as well as increased sensitivity to the lesion.
In general, the patient's condition is satisfactory, some patients complain of headaches and discomfort when moving.
Eosinophilic granuloma develops slowly, the disease chronic, progresses in rare cases. Sometimes the disease is accompanied by a person over the years, and the affected area is not so visible and change color, especially under the influence of ultraviolet radiation. With extensive destructive outbreaks are possible formation of false joints and pathological fractures.
Use the following method of treatment of granuloma:
- X-ray lesions of bone tissue;
- Surgical treatment (curettage or curettage);
- Radiation therapy;
- Drug therapy leykeran drugs, vincristine, hlorbutin et al. (Acute manifestations).
Since there are cases of spontaneous recovery before using the above methods used watchful waiting with careful observation of the patient in the hospital.