Fractures - various damage their integrity as a result of traumatic exposure. At the time of injury, the force exceeds the impact resistance of the bone and bone breaks. For reasons of occurrence of all fractures are divided into two main groups: caused by strong mechanical action on bone health and fracture pathological character.
Traumatic fractures occur as a result of road traffic accidents, falls, bumps and other mechanical effects on the bone.
If pathological fractures physical force feedback can be quite small, the real reason lies in the presence of a pathological process occurring in bone tissue.
A common cause of pathologic fracture is osteoporosis (bone loss), through which the bone becomes extremely brittle and break with little or no effect on its external force, for example, during the awkward movements, sudden getting up, and so on. D.
Types of bone fractures
Classification by type of fractures is very diverse. This is explained by the fact that each case of fracture combines a large number of factors accompanying his rise - causes a fracture, localization of injury, the nature of injury to soft tissue, and so on. D. When fractures offset each case referred to a particular type by type the displacement of bone fragments, the nature of fracture and other parameters.
However, despite the variety of types of bone fractures, there is an urgent need to establish the precise area of bone tissue, which is the center of the fracture.
The most common classification of fractures:
- Complex (otherwise referred to, wedge fractures, which produce multiple comminuted fragments of bone);
- Extra-articular fractures;
- Intra-articular fractures.
Also, there is the following classification of fractures:
- Closed fractures in which there is no damage to the outer skin;
- Open fractures, for which there is a violation of the integrity of the skin in the area of injury and the risk of infection.
Symptoms of bone fractures
Mandatory signs fracture trauma surgeon include the presence of external bruising and swelling in the area of injury. As a rule, when it comes to the limbs, functional mobility it is severely limited. If you attempt to traffic pronounced pain syndrome. In rare cases (for example, when impacted fracture of the femoral neck), some victims may continue independent movement, but this fact leads to further injury and displacement of the bone fragments. When impacted, subperiosteal, periarticular, intraarticular fractures and cracks in the bones, some of the above symptoms may be entirely absent, or not be too pronounced.
Diagnosis of bone fractures
Before the adoption of measures for the imposition of gypsum (or other variants fixation of bone fragments) in the walls of the medical institution necessarily carried out X-ray examination of the victim with a broken bone. X-rays are always performed in several projections for a detailed site survey of bone fractures from several different angles.
X-rays - the most accurate tool to create a complete picture of traumatologists bone fracture - its appearance, location, direction and nature of the displacement of bone fragments.
Then, control X-rays hurt after conservative or surgical fixation of broken bones. Later X-ray examination is appointed by approximately 14 days (in each case - in different ways) to oversee the seam broken bone and callus formation at the fracture site.
Treatment of fractures
Events for the treatment of bone fracture should begin immediately on the spot. The most urgent assistance in the first minutes after the injury should be measures to eliminate the painful shock, especially when it comes to bone fractures in children.
Next, you need to take action to stop bleeding (if it takes place). Immediately after the above activities should be provided first aid immobilisation (creating conditions for complete immobility) bone fracture site using special tools or scrap materials.
In the case of an open fracture on top of the wound surface is necessary to apply a sterile gauze and a pressure bandage to prevent the possibility of further bleeding and wound infection. In no case can not attempt to reduce a protruding from an open wound bone fragments, thus you can only inflict severe pain to the victim, but also to cause substantial harm to his health.
First aid in case of closed fractures of bones is primarily in immobilization of the damaged area of the body to prevent the possibility of displacement of bone fragments and the emergence of internal bleeding.
Timely and competent first aid provided to the affected, significantly reducing the period of rehabilitation after bone fractures and ensures full recovery of motor function of the damaged area of the body.
In the hospital one of the basic medical treatment of fractures include:
- The imposition of a plaster cast;
- Skeletal traction;
- Joint replacement;
- External hardware compression-distraction osteosynthesis;
- Internal fixation, and so on. D.
To the victim has not lost the ability to work in the future and could, as soon as possible to return to normal life should be given special attention during rehabilitation after fracture. The list of rehabilitation measures after the fracture (especially after prolonged immobilization) must necessarily be included Physiotherapy and physical therapy. Various exercise equipment can be selected on www.romashka-sport.com and gradually restore motor activity.