In cases when a woman after a year of regular sexual intercourse without contraception no pregnancy, to talk about female infertility. In more than half of conception does not occur through the fault of the woman. Female Infertility is divided into primary, when the pregnancy never comes, and secondary, if it was the place to be.
Also distinguish absolute and relative female infertility. In the first case, the conception is not possible due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics, such as underdevelopment or absence of the uterus and other female sexual organs. In the second - pregnancy is possible after elimination of the causes of infertility.
Female infertility itself is not a disease, but in most cases requires medical intervention, because only a specialist can determine the cause of this condition and to choose the right tactics to eliminate this problem.
Causes of female infertility
The variety of the causes of female infertility is amazing, but among them there are three main groups:
- Obstruction of the fallopian tubes or tubal infertility. In this case, the causes of female infertility may be due to diseases of the female genital organs inflammatory, caused in most cases, urogenital infections. It also may include adhesions after surgery, etc.
- Disruption of the menstrual cycle in which there is no regular ovulation, hormonal or infertility. Most often it is caused by a dysfunction in the endocrine glands, which include the ovaries.
- A violation of the process of implementation and attachment of a fertilized egg, for example, endometriosis, after abortion and for other reasons. This type of female infertility is called royal.
In addition, as the causes of female infertility are considered abnormal structure and malformations of the pelvic organs, immunological factors, tumors and cysts of the ovaries and uterus of different etiology, stress, genetic disorder. Sometimes conception does not occur even in cases where there are no reasons preventing a favorable outcome.
Diagnosis of female infertility
The full survey, including the diagnostic tests, is very costly, both financially and morally. By the time of diagnosis of female infertility it takes about four to five menstrual cycles. This duration is explained incompatibility between some of the procedures is the fact that the tests may be performed only on certain days of the menstrual cycle.
In any form of female infertility diagnosis it begins with anamnesis, gynecological examination and checks. It is mandatory survey is conducted for urogenital infections, is a pelvic ultrasound and a smear is taken for the study of vaginal flora. The study of blood taken from a vein on an empty stomach with a 5 to 7 days of the menstrual cycle, helps to identify the hormonal imbalance that prevents the maturation of the egg. As an aid for the diagnosis of female infertility using a graph of basal temperature, with the help of the time it turns out ovulation, if available.
A more reliable method of determining the date of ovulation is a biopsy of endometrial tissue, when a special tool takes a piece from the surface of the uterus. On the basis of microscopic examination of samples taken, it is clear subjected uterine tissue hormonal effects or not.
If you suspect a blocked tubes is carried out X-ray examination, hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparotomy. The most reliable information about the condition of the ovaries, tubes, uterus and the surrounding area can be obtained using the latter method of the study.
Treatment of female infertility
After examination and depending on the results, or you can assign more in-depth diagnosis, or if the cause is identified, the optimal method for the treatment of female infertility:
- Sexual intercourse at an opportune time for conception. Ovulation is calculated using a basal body temperature chart, or ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
- Hormone therapy, during which the adjusted hormones, which means that normal ovarian activity and activates the production of eggs.
- If the minor hormonal disorders, the insemination is performed. This procedure is the introduction of sperm into the uterus of the sexual partner in the most favorable to the pregnancy period. Generally, before it is assigned ovarian stimulation using hormonal agents.
- With no effect on the treatment of female infertility best result shows the in vitro fertilization (IVF), when the egg is fertilized with sperm outside the body of the future mother, and then placed into the uterus.
- The use of donor eggs. This can be a surrogate motherhood when the child bears the donor and the introduction of donor eggs in the prepared using hormone infertile woman's uterus. This method is used in case of severe genetic diseases or in the absence of the own oocytes.
Prevention of female infertility
As mentioned above, female infertility is not a disease, but compliance with a set of rules in many cases will help to avoid situations in which it is impossible to conceive. For the prevention of female infertility is maintaining a healthy lifestyle, ordered sexual life, contraceptive use, early treatment of urogenital infections and inflammation of the pelvic organs. It is important to visit a gynecologist, because the disease is much easier to prevent or treat if it has not passed into a severe form.