Under enterovirus infection understood acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by enteroviruses. Currently there are more than 60 types of enterovirus infection pathogens. All are classified into four groups depending on the serotype. The most common enterovirus infection provoked by the activities of Coxsackie virus and polio. The risk of enterovirus infection is that it activators are extremely high resistance to aggressive environmental factors. They can be stored for a long time in a humid soil and water, and then getting into the human body through the city water or contaminated food.
In early 2008, China has been fixed scale enterovirus infection in children. It is caused by a virus EV71, which does not manifest itself in the last few decades. It enters the body through the mucous membranes of the digestive tract or upper respiratory tract, and then spreads through the rest of the organs through the bloodstream, affecting, among other things, lungs and brain. Enterovirus infection was detected in more than 15,000 children, 20 of them died. This fact once again reminds us that in the diagnosis of enterovirus infection and must be treated immediately and be integrated.
Ways of infection
In the external environment pathogens fall enterovirus infection of the intestinal tract and nasopharynx, which defines the main route of infection: airborne, water, food, and household contact. The role of specific factors in the mechanism of transmission it is unclear why the incubation time period may vary depending on the condition of the human immune system, the characteristics of the particular virus species and environmental conditions. As a rule, enterovirus infection is fairly easy and does not lead to any serious complications. However, advanced forms of enterovirus infections affect a variety of organs and systems, provoke the development of serious illnesses in some cases are fatal, that we, in fact, observed during the Chinese epidemic.
The symptoms of enterovirus infection
After the end of the incubation period, patients have early warning signs of enterovirus infection:
- pain in the abdomen;
- nausea and sometimes vomiting.
These symptoms of enterovirus infections are mild, but in some cases, the infection does not manifest itself. More serious symptoms are observed only after exposure of pathogens into the bloodstream and spread on the vital systems of the body. Since then, the patients begin to complain about:
- rash on the hands and feet;
- swelling of the extremities;
- ulcers in the oral cavity.
If enterovirus infection continues to develop, and the patient is not taking any measures to get rid of it, the case may go to serious complications: meningitis, encephalitis, pulmonary edema and even paralysis. Launched enterovirus infection in children and adults results in death or significant brain lesions and disability.
In recent years, children have increasingly revealed the so-called small enterovirus infection. It is characterized by mild fever, weakness, muscle aches, and usually goes away by itself within 2-3 days without causing marked changes in the individual organs.
Diagnosis of the disease
Enterovirus infection in adults is established only on the basis of laboratory results. Their conduct may take some time, and this term it is desirable to isolate the patient from other family members. Due to the rapid spread of infection every case of infection subject to registration. At the same time conducted unannounced survey of people who had contact with the patient. If the studies confirm the diagnosis of enterovirus infection, symptoms and clinical course of the disease are recorded in a separate map of the epidemiological investigation.
Treatment of enterovirus infection
Currently, specific therapies enterovirus infection exists. In the acute phase patients assigned bed rest, vitamin-rich diet, drinking plenty of fluids (vomiting and diarrhea can cause dehydration). If enterovirus infection in children is accompanied by high fever and severe headache, and muscle aches, the sick recommended analgesics and antipyretics. When diarrhea is advisable to use drugs to restore the water-salt balance, for example, rehydron. Antibiotics are used only in cases of secondary bacterial infections.
Developed diet must meet the following conditions:
- excluded from the diet foods that increase peristalsis (sweets, soft drinks, sausage, black bread, fresh fruit and vegetables, fatty and fried foods);
- food must be easily digestible;
- it is desirable to completely abandon the use of dairy products;
- if enterovirus infection in adults and children accompanied by putrefaction, patients should have baked apples, which absorb toxic substances;
- food is best given often, but in small portions. This applies to both adults and children.
Prevention of enterovirus infection is aimed at health improvement freshwater sources, personal hygiene, disinfection of sewage, providing the population with fresh, quality food and clean drinking water.