Electrocution - a trauma received as a result of electric shock or lightning.
Dangerous to humans and lead to electrical accident considered the current exceeds 0 15Amper, and AC and DC voltage is greater than 36 volts. Effects of electric shock can be very different: an electric shock can cause cardiac arrest, blood circulation, breathing, loss of consciousness. Almost always accompanied by electrical accident injuries of the skin, mucous membranes and bones at the site entrance and exit of the electric discharge, resulting in disruption of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Types of electrical shocks
Electrocution classified according to their place of receipt, the nature of the impact of voltage, the nature of the injury (electrocution local and general).
Depending on the place of receipt, release these types of electrical shocks: industrial, natural and domestic.
By the nature of the impact of electric current electrical accident can be instantaneous and chronic. Instant electric shock - a person getting an electrical discharge that exceeds the permissible level in a very short period of time. Such electrical accident accompanied by serious injuries requiring intensive care and surgery. And this kind of electrocution as a chronic, occurs because of the long and imperceptible effects of electric voltage on the person. Example - work near large power generators. People who are exposed to this kind of electric shock, observed fatigue, sleep disturbances and memory, headaches, tremors, high blood pressure, dilated pupils.
In addition, and it decided to allocate these types of electrocution as local and general. Local electrical accident - it burn elektrooftalmiya, metal skin (getting under the skin and melting in an electric arc small metal particles), mechanical damage. A general electrical accident occur in electric shock different muscle groups, which is manifested convulsions, cardiac arrest, respiratory
Causes of electrical shocks
Causes of electrical shocks in the majority of cases (80-90 percent) is in direct contact with live parts of electrical installations, work with them without stress relief. The main causes of electrical shocks are negligence and carelessness - incorrect voltage supply and disconnect the power supply, poor insulation.
In other words, the causes of electrical shocks can be systematized as follows: technical reasons (equipment failure, incorrect operation of it), organizational (non-compliance with safety regulations) and physiological (fatigue, decreased attention).
It was noted that in the production of a huge percentage of electrical shocks falls on the beginning and end time shifts (peresmenku), and in the morning (first) shift. In the first case, a great role played by the factor of fatigue, while the second - a feature of the planning of the day: the maximum amount of the electrical installation is necessary on the morning.
Help with electrical accident
Regardless of the type of electrical accident (only if it is not natural, the result of a lightning strike), primarily by helping the victim, should be in any way possible to disconnect the source of destruction: press the switch on the unit, turn the switch, unscrew the plug or break the electrical wires.
Assisting in the electrical accident, we can not forget about safety precautions: remove the wire from the victim can only be insulated by using tools or by any other, but a dry subject, be sure to put on rubber gloves. Also, do not protect their hands, do not touch the injured person an electric shock if not disconnected wires.
Man getting electrocution general or local should be placed on a flat surface, be sure to call an ambulance and take the following actions:
1. Check the pulse, and in its absence (cardiac arrest) to conduct chest compressions;
2. Check your breath, and if not, administer artificial respiration;
3. If you have a pulse and breathing should be put on the victim's stomach and thus turn his head to the side. So a person can breathe freely and not choke vomit;
4. burns from electrical accident should put a bandage, be sure to clean and dry. If burned foot or hand, it is necessary to pave the bandages rolled between the fingers or cotton swabs;
5. Perform a visual inspection of the victim for other related injuries and, if necessary, assist;
6. If the person is conscious, give him drink the recommended fluid in large quantities;
Assisting in the electrical accident, the victim should not be left alone, and be sure to organize its transportation to a medical facility, where he examined and will have professional help. It must be done, even if the injury seems minor in appearance: the position of the patient may change at any time.