Dysphagia - difficulty swallowing, is a symptom of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. Dysphagia, even occasionally, especially frequent and the more constant need to see a doctor and a thorough diagnosis, as the disease in which it appears, are quite serious.
Causes of dysphagia
Depending on its causes, dysphagia can be:
- The functional when mechanical obstacles swallowing, but there is a disorder of the nervous system;
- Caused by organic lesions when there are diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, or neighboring organs, impeding the passage of the bolus.
The most common cause of dysphagia are just diseases of the esophagus, creating a mechanical obstruction promote food bolus. This condition is called esophageal dysphagia. Causes of esophageal dysphagia following: esophageal ulcer, esophagitis (inflammation of the lining of the esophagus), esophageal stricture - post-traumatic cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus, esophageal tumor.
Moreover, the cause of the disease may be dysphagia esophagus adjacent organs, which is its compression. For example, esophageal hernia aperture card, nodular goiter, aortic aneurysm, mediastinal tumor, etc.
Symptoms of dysphagia
True dysphagia, swallowing violation itself, that is, the promotion of food bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx, occurs in lesions of the nerve centers that control the act of swallowing, resulting in the well-coordinated process Unbalancing and the contents of the food bolus while trying to swallow it hits the esophagus and the respiratory tract - the nose, throat, trachea. The result is a spasm of the airways until suffocation, there is a strong cough reflex.
Functional dysphagia occurs when the functional disorders of the nervous system - increased excitability, nervousness, etc. In this case, the symptoms Dysphagia episodically, usually provokes them to any one or more kinds of food (solid, liquid, sharp, etc.). This bolus usually do not get into the respiratory tract, but swallowing is difficult, and the promotion of his esophagus accompanied by unpleasant and painful sensations.
When esophageal dysphagia the act of swallowing is not broken, but the passage of the bolus is accompanied by pain in the upper abdomen, heartburn, sometimes belch. An unpleasant taste in the mouth, there is regurgitation - throwing the contents of the stomach into the throat and mouth. Regurgitation increases with an inclined posture, as well as during sleep, especially if the meal was less than two hours before bedtime. The symptoms of dysphagia in the esophagitis may be hoarseness, increased slyunoobrazovanie and suffocation. Dysphagia esophagus often caused by solid foods, its distinctive feature is that zapivanie water facilitates the process, and when taking a liquid or pasty food dysphagia symptoms are less pronounced, although dysphagia esophagus when esophagitis can occur when fluid intake.
Diagnosis of dysphagia
Since dysphagia - a symptom of the disease, and not an independent disease, careful diagnosis to identify the disease that caused dysphagia. First, spend gastroenterological examination is the main method in this case is EGD - fibrogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopy, allows us to consider the mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and to identify existing pathology. Upon detection of a tumor or ulcer biopsy followed by histological examination, and when it detects signs of esophagitis take the contents of the esophagus for bacteriological seeding, in order to identify the causative agent.
As if by a gastroenterological examination causes of dysphagia was not found, conduct a neurological examination, revealing damage to the nervous structure.
Treatment for dysphagia
Treatment for dysphagia is reduced to the use of local resources to facilitate its symptoms, as the main therapeutic measures are taken in relation to the disease, which is caused dysphagia.
Part of the treatment is an emergency in the event of acute symptoms of dysphagia. For example, in the case of true dysphagia must first be thoroughly cleaned airways of food trapped in them, making sure that the patient suffocated. Further treatment of dysphagia held true in the hospital, in severe cases, food and water are introduced into the esophagus through a tube.
Emergency treatment of dysphagia caused by inflammation of the esophagus, comprising administering an aluminum-containing antacid agents (reduce the acidity, so-called "drug heartburn" type Fosfalyugel, Almagelum etc.) or receiving Zantac effervescent tablet dissolved in a glass of water. Subsequent treatment of dysphagia is the treatment of esophagitis.
When esophageal dysphagia is necessary to observe certain rules of behavior and diet food. So, we recommend split meals in small portions (at least 4 times per day), food should not be dry and hard, it is necessary to chew. Banned meals in a hurry and eat cold food. After the meal, necessary for 1, 5-2 hours to avoid leaning forward to avoid regurgitation. The last meal should be no later than 2 hours before bedtime.
If the patient's esophagus, dysphagia, its diet should consist of easy to digest food: vegetables, boiled or steamed, lean meats, fish and poultry, and preference should be given to white meat, oily food is excluded, fried and smoked and spicy and spicy. Banned fast food and all kinds of fizzy drinks and tea and strong coffee. Alcohol is eliminated completely. Rind of fiber should also be avoided. Recommended milk and milk products, generally the preference should be given to milk-vegetable diet with the addition of mucous soups and porridges.